Comprehensive list of allophones of all English phonemes

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Applecandy:
Hi everybody,
In one of my classes, I am doing a contrastive analysis between English and Chinese. One problem I have been having is that I am not entirely clear about all the different allophones of each phoneme of English. I know some of the ones that are commonly used in Example (e.g., light and dark l, aspirated/unaspirated/unreleased p, t, k, etc.), but find myself unsure of others.
Does anybody know of a comprehensive list anywhere on the Internet that lists all the allophones of every phoneme in English? If so, I would appreciate it if you would post it here.
Thank you in advance for any help!
Applecandy
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Peter T. Daniels:
[nq:1]Hi everybody, In one of my classes, I am doing a contrastive analysis between English and Chinese. One problem I ... English? If so, I would appreciate it if you would post it here. Thank you in advance for any help![/nq]
If you think about the meanings of "allophone" and "phoneme," you'll realize this is an impossible request.
What "others"?

Peter T. Daniels (Email Removed)
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Robert Bannister:
[nq:2]Hi everybody, In one of my classes, I am doing ... post it here. Thank you in advance for any help![/nq]
[nq:1]If you think about the meanings of "allophone" and "phoneme," you'll realize this is an impossible request. What "others"?[/nq]
Possibly 'sh/zh'. I noticed recently that I pronounce 'Asian' with either, although 'Asia' always has 'sh'.

Rob Bannister
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Peter T. Daniels:
[nq:2]If you think about the meanings of "allophone" and "phoneme," you'll realize this is an impossible request. What "others"?[/nq]
[nq:1]Possibly 'sh/zh'. I noticed recently that I pronounce 'Asian' with either, although 'Asia' always has 'sh'.[/nq]
That's neutralization to an archiphoneme, rather than allophony, but whyever would you use (S) in "Asia"? What other consonants do you devoice between vowels?

Peter T. Daniels (Email Removed)
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Robert Bannister:
[nq:2]Possibly 'sh/zh'. I noticed recently that I pronounce 'Asian' with either, although 'Asia' always has 'sh'.[/nq]
[nq:1]That's neutralization to an archiphoneme, rather than allophony, but whyever would you use (S) in "Asia"? What other consonants do you devoice between vowels?[/nq]
"Pronunciation: 'A-zh&, -sh&"
so they are presumably putting my pronunciation second. I didn't check a BrE dictionary, however I have heard some people say "Ayz-ya" which I suppose leads to the 'zh' sound.
I don't really understand why you are calling it a devoicing - it's not as if it starts out as 'z' - think 'fissure', 'nation', 'acacia', 'facial'. I agree that '-sion' words have 'zh', but I can't think of another word that has the 'asia' combination - the closest I can get to it is 'fuchsia'.

Rob Bannister
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Skitt:
[nq:2]That's neutralization to an archiphoneme, rather than allophony, but whyever would you use (S) in "Asia"? What other consonants do you devoice between vowels?[/nq]
[nq:1]"Pronunciation: 'A-zh&, -sh&" so they are presumably putting my pronunciation second. I didn't check a BrE dictionary, however I have ... can't think of another word that has the 'asia' combination - the closest I can get to it is 'fuchsia'.[/nq]
Euthanasia.
The online M-W says that it has 87 others, but it displays only the first
10.
Skitt (in Hayward, California)
www.geocities.com/opus731/
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Evan Kirshenbaum:
[nq:2]Hi everybody, In one of my classes, I am doing ... post it here. Thank you in advance for any help![/nq]
[nq:1]If you think about the meanings of "allophone" and "phoneme," you'll realize this is an impossible request. What "others"?[/nq]
Ladefoged gives 22 "rules for English allophones" in the second edition of A Course in Phonetics (pp. 82-88), not all of which apply to all varieties of English. Summarizing,
1) voiceless stops are aspirated when syllable initial
2) voiced obstruents are partially voiced when syllable final exceptwhen followed by a voiced sound
2a) voiced stops are partially voiced when syllable initial except when preceded by a voiced sound
3) consonants are longer at the end of a phrase
4) approximants are unvoiced after aspirated stops
5) voiceless stops are unaspirated after /s/ at the beginning of asyllable.
6) vowels are shorter before voiceless sounds in the same syllable
7) voiceless sounds are longer at the end of a syllable.
8) stops are unexploded before stops
9) a glottal stop is inserted before voiceless stops after a voweland at the end of a syllable
10) voiceless alveolar stops become glottal stops before nasals inthe same word
11) nasals become syllabic at the end of a word and after anobstruent
12) laterals become syllabic at the end of a word and after anotherconsonant.
12a) liquids become syllabic at the end of a word and after a consonant.
13) voiceless alveolar stops become voiced taps between a stressedvowel and an unstressed syllable.
14) alveolars become dentals before dentals
15) velars are fronted before more front vowels
16) laterals are velarized after a vowel and before another consonantor the end of a word
17) vowels are longer in open syllables
18) vowels are longer in stressed syllables
19) vowels are nasalized before nasals
20) front vowels are retracted before syllable final /l/.

He notes that (p. 88)
These rules are far from a complete set specifying the behavior of vowels in English. I have already mentioned the fact that it is possible to write rules describing the alternations in "divine, divinity" and all similar pairs and the vowel reduction in "explain, explanation" and all similar pairs. It is also possible to write rules that account for there being no opposition between tense and lax vowels before any of the consonants /r, S, N/. But all these rules would get us beyond the limits of an introductory textbook.
Again let me emphasize that these rules roughly specify only some of the major aspects of the pronunciation of English. They do not state everything about English consonants and vowels that is rule governed, nor are they completely accurately formulated. There are problems, for example, in saying exactly what is meant by a word or a syllable, and it is possible to find both excetptions to these rules and additional generalizations that can be made.

You might want to try to track down a copy of this book (the most recent edition is the fourth) to see the details.

Evan Kirshenbaum + HP Laboratories >The skinny models whose main job is
1501 Page Mill Road, 1U, MS 1141 >to display clothes aren't hired forPalo Alto, CA 94304 >their sex appeal. They're hired

(650)857-7572 > Peter Moylan

http://www.kirshenbaum.net /
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Jim Heckman:
[nq:1]I don't really understand why you are calling it a devoicing - it's not as if it starts out as ... can't think of another word that has the 'asia' combination - the closest I can get to it is 'fuchsia'.[/nq]

Jim Heckman
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Richard Sabey:
[nq:1]Ladefoged gives 22 "rules for English allophones" in the second edition of A Course in Phonetics (pp. 82-88), not all of which apply to all varieties of English.[/nq]
Granted.
[nq:1]Summarizing,[/nq]
Selecting,
[nq:1]9) a glottal stop is inserted before voiceless stops after a vowel and at the end of a syllable[/nq]
There are at least 2 ways to parse that sentence.
[nq:1]10) voiceless alveolar stops become glottal stops before nasals in the same word[/nq]
E.g. catnip /'k&tnIp/ -> ('k&?nIp). Yes, in an accent that has that feature of Cockney, I suppose. In some accents, it's an extension of rule 8:

voiceless alveolar stops before nasals in the same word are unexploded
[nq:1]11) nasals become syllabic at the end of a word and after an obstruent[/nq]
I'm not sure how to parse this rule. Is it "A nasal at the end of a word becomes syllabic, and a nasal after an obstruent becomes syllabic"? If so, then, it seems to me, it applies too widely. What accent has disyllabic "doom" (du:m-), "calm" (ka:m-), "smell" (sm-El)?

Or perhaps I misunderstood, and it's "A nasal becomes syllabic if it is at the end of a word and it is after an obstruent". That begs the question. If you transcribe a word so that that rule applies, then you have something like happen ('h&pn-), eaten ('i:tn-), wagon ('w&gn-). Then you have already decided that the nasal is syllabic.
[nq:1]13) voiceless alveolar stops become voiced taps between a stressed vowel and an unstressed syllable.[/nq]
Yes, this is a feature of some US accents, and you did say that Ladefoged said that not all of these rules apply to all varieties of English. Granted. I wonder, now, why Ladefoged specified "voiceless".

In what accent is "petal" ('***-) but "pedal" ('pEd@l) or ('pEdl-) (rather than a homophone of "petal" by this rule)?
[nq:1]20) front vowels are retracted before syllable final /l/.[/nq]
In what accent is this true of any front vowel except /i/? Don't count an accent in which that front vowel is routinely retracted, only those where it takes syllable final /l/ to produce this retraction.
Thank you, Evan, for copying that interesting set of observations.
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