Anonymous:
Hi,

If you were to choose the correct verb form in bold, which one would you bet on, and why?

Why on earth didn’t you tell/ haven’t you told me about that loose floorboard? I tripped/have tripped over it just now and hurt myself.

Best regards,
.
Why on earth didn’t you tell me about that loose floorboard? I tripped over it just now and hurt myself.-- Both events are firmly-- and blamefully-- rooted in the past.
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Anonymous:
Yes, but why is it so strongly connected with the past while there is a word "just now" there? I thought that we use Present Perfect with the actions which "just happened" and are connected with the present.

Best regards,
Kamil
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we use Present Perfect with the actions which "just happened" and are connected with the present.
Yes, often, but context and intention are the ad hoc interpreters of this guideline. Here, the speaker is angrily accusing the other person of being the cause of two things that definitely happened.

PS: To clarify, there is no 'correct' choice among your options. I have suggested the ones that make the most sense to me.
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AnonymousIf you were to choose the correct verb form in bold, which one would you bet on, and why?
To me, the most idiomatic choices are Why didn't you tell ...? and I tripped over it just now. It's a case of a sudden action or event in the very recent past -- not a matter of a history of experiences, as in I have tripped over that board at least a dozen times this week or If I've told you once, I've told you a thousand times to be careful about that board.
Compare:
I just saw that film last night. (relating my action) vs. I've already seen that film several times. (relating my history)
I ran into an old friend at the grocery store today. (action) vs. I've often run into friends at the theatre. (history)
Did you see that man steal the shirt? It happened just now! (action) vs. Have you ever seen anyone steal a shirt? It has happened in this store more than once. (history)
___
The present perfect cannot be used with a phrase indicating "definite time". just now often qualifies as a "definite time".
CJ
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Anonymous:
Somebody told me that I could use "Why on earth haven't you told me..." because it has influence on the Present and the second part of the sentence proves it. Is it correct or not?
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Are you speaking of this sentence?--
Why on earth didn’t you tell me about that loose floorboard?
The second part of the sentence 'proves' nothing. The choice of tense/aspect seldom if ever lies in the words alone.
.
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