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Hi,

Definitions: (I got them from a dictionairy)

Hence=For this reason

Thus=In this way

Since these are there definitions, is this the main way they are used?

Overall, I have worked hard and have been rewarded hence (for this reason).

I took the cap off the lid first instead of cutting a hole first. Thus (in this way), there is more chance it will work.

In the past, I used the words synonymously to mean 'therefore' which the dictionairy also accepts as definitions for both words. However, according to the dictionairy, it is no the main meanings.

Thanks for your help.
Full Member466
Hi, Eddie. I just switched pain pills and I'm not feeling very smart. But you and I need to find a better spell checker. You're spelling "there definitions" like "over there," and "dictionairy" like milk from the "dairy." (I'll admit they sound the same.)

I'm always very reluctant to discuss "main meanings," because so much of what we do here is without context. Seems like we're often judged harshly for using an obscure meaning. Just be sure at the end of the day to tally up your uses, and be sure you're on the right side of the fence.

I would say, "Overall, I have worked hard and have been rewarded accordingly."

"I'm broke. Hence I'll be walking home rather than taking the bus." (There's a soft spot in my heart for "Get thee hence!")

The cap example seems natural enough, but I'd probably use "therefore" in this case. (Or, "because of this")

"This hammer is heavier than that one, hence more likely to do the job."

"Observe the method I use for checking my sums. I'd suggest you perform your addition thus."

Edit. For this usage, I think of it as, "I recommend that you do it thus (in this way)." I believe your example is more like "because of this." "I did A and B. Thus (Because of this), C is likely."

Best regards, - A.
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Thanks.

Sorry to ask more of you in your state, but I have a question which I just can't find the answer to anywhere. So I hope you can put me straight.

Read the bottom post of this hyperlink, please:

http://www.englishforums.com/English/ALetterOfComplaintThanks/hxxrv/post.htm

It is in regards to the use of 'in which.' I normally know when it can be used, but in some contexts, it raises a question or two, which questions my usage.

If you could help me that would be great.

Cheers.
Hi, Your link didn't work, but I found it with the "in-house" search function.

There's quite a bit of material there. Could you help me by writing one specfic example of a usage you're not clear on? Then we can go from there. (I'm not sure which comments you agree with and which you find troublesome.)

Re where / in which, when we're speaking of a physical enclosure, there are usually two locations involved. There's the enclosure itself, and then there's the location of the enclosure. "the left hip pocket in my jeans, where / in which I keep my car keys" "the medicine cabinet in the bathroom, where / in which I keep my pain pills" "the seventh paragraph in the fourth chapter, where / in which you have clearly contradicted yourself"

For some reason, "Write a paragraph where you explain X" doesn't sound as good as the "in which" version. I don't think it's a "future" problem. "Build a closet where / in which you can store your clothes." seems okay.

Why is the test of putting the "in" at the end so important? "Write a paragraph which you tell your story in." It works, but it won't win any prize, as Clive pointed out.

(I should have put this in the other thread. I'll transpose it, or have it moved.)
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Hi:

Firstly, the reason I think of it in terms of the preposition at the end is because I only think of this slightly different structure (preposition plus 'which') when one is writing a sentence in which they don't want the sentence to end with the preposition. For instance,

I don't know which one you are talking about

Becomes

I don't know about which one you are talking.

So I was wondering if the 'in which' was only used instead of ending the sentence with 'in.' In other words does it go like this:

Is this the drawer where the files are stored

Is this the drawer which the files are stored in

Is this the drawer in which the files are stored

I realise this is correct; however, does this mean one can't use 'in which' instead of where if there is no need for the preposition 'in' to be there...

I will do the same thing as above with another sentence:

Write a paragraph where you reflect on what you have learned from the process of finding your Co-op Placement.

Write a paragraph which you reflect on what you have learned from the process of finding your Co-op Placement in

Write a paragraph in which you reflect on what you have learned from the process of finding your Co-op Placement.

Does the 'in' need to be there in the second sentence?

So basically, when can 'where' NOT be replaced by 'in which' in a relative clause??

Sorry, as you see I love to complicate things.

Cheers.
IMHO, all of the sentences we have discussed here (I'll let you typify them!) lend themselves to the free exchange of "where" and "in which." I have to admit, I'm still having a hard time understanding why you wish to transpose the "in" from its happy position in front of the "which" to a remote location which it is often unhappy in.

Is it simply a test? - a way of deciding if this is an example where "where" may be replaced by "in which"??

(Sorry about the underscore. About a quarter of the time it refuses to go away!)

- A.
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Ok this should explain it.

Is this the drawer where the files are stored

Is this the drawer which the files are stored in

Now, here is the more formal way to say the above sentence. The preposition preceeds its object (relative pronoun/antecedent is drawer).

Is this the drawer in which the files are stored

So, from this, I always assumed that 'in which' and 'which....in' were the same. One is just more formal than the other...

Here is another example, but I am unsure if the (star example) preposition makes sense at the end of the sentence, so I thought maybe where can only be used here.

Write a paragraph where you reflect on what you have learned from the process of finding your Co-op Placement.

Write a paragraph which you reflect on what you have learned from the process of finding your Co-op Placement in

And here is the more formal one again...

Write a paragraph in which you reflect on what you have learned from the process of finding your Co-op Placement.

Is this simply all 'in which' is? The same as 'about which' for example.

This is something, which I know nothing about.

This is something about which I know nothing.

Thanks.
Hi Eddie,

Yes.

Clive
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Eddie88 Is this simply all 'in which' is? The same as 'about which' for example.

This is something, which I know nothing about.

This is something about which I know nothing.
This is something regarding which I know nothing.

This is something which I know nothing regarding.
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