Anonymous:Can anyone explain to me the verb complement structure of "John tends to get hungry." My guess is that "to get hungry" is a direct object, but I am not sure.
Do you know what a complement is? A complement is a syntactic constituent that is indispensable to make a sentence meaningful. Let me prove "to get hungry" in "John tends to get hungry" is a complement. Take "to get hungry" from the sentence, then you will get a sentence fragment "John tends". Do you find any sense in the fragment "John tends"? I'm sure you don't. So we have to deem this "to get hungry" as a complement.
An adverbial is a constituent that modifies a verb or a sentence. If a constituent is an adverbial, the sentence can make any sense even if that constituent is elided. Take the following sentence as an example: "John worked hard to save money". Let's leave out "to save money", then we get "John worked hard". This elision leads to the loss of some additional information contained in the original sentence, but the resulted sentence still retains the main sense of the original sentence. So we can say "to save money" in this case is an adverbial.
What is interesting is that the original question remains unanswered! Don't you think? Infinitives may act adverbially, but that does not apply in this case. I am inclined to say that Anon's hunch was correct: the infinitive phrase is a direct object verb complement. I hope I am humble enough to take it if I am wrong!
I am sorry but I have to say I can't agree to your analyses. "No one is here" makes some sense even when we take out "here". You have to know this "be" is used in the sense of "exist". "No one exists here". Take out "here". Then "No one exists". I feel this still makes sense.
I think it's not wise to relate "complement" to certain parts of speech, i.e., nouns and adjectives. Take a construction of "He seems". It takes various forms of speech.
Paco seems [foolish] …. adjective.
Paco seems [a fool] ….. noun.
Paco seems [to be a Japanese person] … infinitive clause.
Paco seems [as if he were mad]. …. as-if clause.
As seen above, a variety of forms can be as the complement of "He seems", but indeed all of them can function as the complement of "He seems".
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