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1. Salma ----------- to leave the house as soon as she feeds her cat because
she has an urgent meeting.

a. has got to b. will have got to

The model answer to this question is "has got to". I want to know why the second choice is wrong.


2. What did the convict admit? - He admitted stealing a meat pie.

Is the question mentioned above correct? Shouldn't it be "What did the convict admit doing?" ?

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Omar Ahmed

1. Salma ----------- to leave the house as soon as she feeds her cat because she has an urgent meeting.

a. has got to b. will have got to

The model answer to this question is "has got to". I want to know why the second choice is wrong.

It's wrong because the idiom "have got to" in the sense of obligation is only used in the present. It's either "have got to" or "has got to". (Actually, the simple past is used on occasion, but it's rare — "had got to". It sounds old-fashioned to my ear.)

No continuous forms are used (is having got to, was having got to, etc.), and no perfect forms are used (have had got to, had had got to), and no modal forms are used (will have got to, may have got to, could have got to, etc.).

Note that "will have to" would fit in the blank, but not "will have got to".


Those forms might be used in the sense of arrival, however (She will have got to Bombay by 8 o'clock tonight. / They hung up before I could answer. I should have got to the phone sooner.), or in the sense of obtaining a benefit (If I had been there earlier, I would have got to meet some movie stars).

Omar Ahmed

2. What did the convict admit? - He admitted stealing a meat pie.

Is the question mentioned above correct? Shouldn't it be "What did the convict admit doing?" ?

In my variety of English we usually admit to doing something, so I'd probably have asked one of the following:

What did the convict admit to?
What did the convict admit to doing?

Nevertheless I recognize What did the convict admit? and What did the convict admit doing? as possible. So I'd say the version you're asking about is correct, though strange to my ear.

CJ

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CalifJim
Omar Ahmed

1. Salma ----------- to leave the house as soon as she feeds her cat because she has an urgent meeting.

a. has got to b. will have got to

The model answer to this question is "has got to". I want to know why the second choice is wrong.

It's wrong because the idiom "have got to" in the sense of obligation is only used in the present. It's either "have got to" or "has got to". (Actually, the simple past is used on occasion, but it's rare — "had got to". It sounds old-fashioned to my ear.)

No continuous forms are used (is having got to, was having got to, etc.), and no perfect forms are used (have had got to, had had got to), and no modal forms are used (will have got to, may have got to, could have got to, etc.).

Note that "will have to" would fit in the blank, but not "will have got to".


Actually, I'm not sure I understood the part I highlighted above, so I just want to make sure. Did you mean to say that the "had got to" form is the simple past tense?

To me, it looks like the past perfect tense. Although "got" wasn't in the past participle form, I found both "got" and "gotten" can be used.

So if "had got to" was simple past tense, then what would be the tense in the "Salma got to leave the house~"?



MoonriseActually, the simple past is used on occasion, but it's rare — "had got to"

We need to modify the terminology a bit to talk about this particularly unusual idiom. There is a difference between the meanings and the forms.

Present (meaning): has got (to) / have got (to) [present perfect (form)].
Past (meaning): had got (to) [past perfect (form)]

This idiom, which means has/have/had, does not use "gotten" when it has these meanings.

I have got a car. ~ I have a car.
I have got to be there at noon. ~ I have to be there at noon.

Extremely rare, but you may see it in an older novel:
I said I could take them there because I had got a car. (because I had a car)
I was late because I had got to take a phone call at the last minute. (because I had to take ...)


You may find it worth reading this post:

Gotta

CJ

CalifJim
MoonriseActually, the simple past is used on occasion, but it's rare — "had got to"

We need to modify the terminology a bit to talk about this particularly unusual idiom. There is a difference between the meanings and the forms.

Present (meaning): has got (to) / have got (to) [present perfect (form)].
Past (meaning): had got (to) [past perfect (form)]

This idiom, which means has/have/had, does not use "gotten" when it has these meanings.

I have got a car. ~ I have a car.
I have got to be there at noon. ~ I have to be there at noon.

Extremely rare, but you may see it in an older novel:
I said I could take them there because I had got a car. (because I had a car)
I was late because I had got to take a phone call at the last minute. (because I had to take ...)


You may find it worth reading this post:

Gotta

CJ


Thanks a lot for clearing it up. One more thing, please. If I want to use "got" in a sentence to mean"I understood something", not I own something. Should I say:

"I've got it." or "I've gotten it"?

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Moonrise

If I want to use "got" in a sentence to mean"I understood something", not I own something. Should I say:

"I've got it." or "I've gotten it"?

"got" for "understood" is pretty casual speech, so any of these will be fine:

I've got it.
I got it.
Got it.

I never hear "gotten" in this context.

CJ

Thank you very much for the answer.