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Here is a syntax question I would like to discuss with great people here.

I bought some flowers for my mom.

I bought some flowers for my mom.

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Do well on the test on Monday.

Do well on the test on Monday.

So my question is "Is there a meaning difference between when "for my mom" modifies "bought" and when "for my mom" modifies "flowers"? And the same question applies to the next example. What do you native English speakers think about it? I have thought they are okay and the same but they might make some difference, I think now.

Thank you as usual.
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Hans51Here is a syntax question I would like to discuss with great people here.I bought some flowers for my mom. I bought some flowers for my mom. ------------------------------Do well on the test on Monday.Do well on the test on Monday.So my question is "Is there a meaning difference between when "for my mom" modifies "bought" and when "for my mom" modifies "flowers"? And the same question applies to the next example. What do you native English speakers think about it? I have thought they are okay and the same but they might make some difference, I think now.
I don't follow you. You say here is a syntax question, and then talk about different possible analyses. But there are no alternative analyses, and emphasis has no bearing on things; each of your examples can only be analysed one way syntactically:

[1] I bought some flowers for my mom.

[2] Do well on the test on Monday.

In [1] the preposition phrase "for my mom" is a complement to the verb "bought". And in [2] the preposition phrase "on Monday" is an adjunct (adverbial) of time modifying the verb phrase "do well on the test".

BillJ
Comments  
It is in speech where differences arise depending on how you emphasize your words.

For example, if you say, "I bought some flowers for my mom.", and you emphasize the words "for my mom," over all others in the sentence, then "for my mom" modifies "bought." On the other hand, if you emphasize "flowers for my mom", then "for my mom" modifies "flowers."

If in speech you emphasize "on Monday," then "on Monday" modifies "Do." If you emphasize "the test on Monday," then "on Monday" modifies "the test."
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Thank you, so you feel any big difference between them? I do not think so. what do you think?
There can be significant differences in speech. If in the first sentence you emphasize the words "for my mom," this would indicate the person thinks very highly of his mom. If you emphasize the words "flowers for my mom," this would imply a very matter-of-fact attitude, or even negative feelings about your mom.

In the second sentence, if you emphasize the words "on Mon.," this would imply there is some concern about how the person will do on the test; the speaker is worried. If the words "the test on Mon." are emphasized, this would imply a matter-of-fact attitude - perhaps the person is expected to do well on the test, and so there is nothing to worry about.
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