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I've found a few phrases like this in a dictionary and a book:

1. His death marked the end of an era.

2. The circumstances of his death - which was to usher in an era of renewed upheaval across the Empire - were less than dignified.

Why is there "an", not "the" in the sentences above?

I consider "era" as a specific period of time.

Thanks for any replies.

And one more sentence:

He was stabbed by one of his own guards while urinating at a roadside, pheraps a fitting end for a man who brought such humiliation upon his office.

Why is there "a man" intead of "the man"?

This is a story about the specific man about which we know from the beginning of the chapter.
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tmn1111. His death marked the end of an era.
There have been many eras. His death ended just one of them.
tmn111
2. The circumstances of his death - which was to usher in an era of renewed upheaval across the Empire - were less than dignified.

What follows of describes the era; renewed upheaval across Europe is adjectival. It is normal in English for adjectives to bring on the indefinite article:

He had dinner. | He had an early dinner.

Birds were flying in the sky. | Birds were flying in a blue sky.
tmn111
He was stabbed by one of his own guards while urinating at a roadside, pheraps perhaps a fitting end for a man who brought such humiliation upon his office.

A relative clause can bring on the defintite or indefinite article. In this case the relative clause describes the man and therefore a is used.

CB

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Cool BreezeA relative clause can bring on the defintite or indefinite article. In this case the relative clause describes the man and therefore a is used.
So does it mean that it's possible to use both the and a/an before a relative clause?

If I said: "...the man who brought such humiliation upon his office" instead of "...a man who brought...", would the meaning remain the same?
tmn111
So does it mean that it's possible to use both the and a/an before a relative clause?

If I said: "...the man who brought such humiliation upon his office" instead of "...a man who brought...", would the meaning remain the same?

No no! The indefinite article is needed for your sentence. Here's ann example of a definite article brought on by a relative clause:

This is the car [that/which] I bought last week. (I bought only one car last week.)

This is a car I bought last week. (I bought at least two cars last week.)

CB
Thanks for your reply, but anyway the last sentence I wrote is incomprehensible to me.
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