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Hi,

1)
Firsty, I know independent clause, dependent clause and that a phrase is when it is a group of words without a subject-verb relationship; however, are there more types than these three?

With this in mind, if one has wrtitten a complete setence, is it correect/allowed to have phrases added to it every time?

That is, is it correct to have a phrase added to an independent clause every time as long as a comma separates the two? And does the comma have to be present?

2)
And secondly, when one breaks up a sentence and identifies (if it is a complex sentence) the two clauses and (a) phrase(s), do commas usually need to be used to separate dependent clauses and independent clauses from phrases?

For example, I was walking home bringing the food back to my friends.

I was walking home=indep clause
bringing the food back to my friends=phrase, as no subject

Here is an example where I know I need a comma to separate the two parts of the sentence, but why is it it different from the above sentence?

It was a really nice day, wanted to go surfing.

So, when does one know when a comma is needed to separate the phrase from the independent/dependent clause?

3)
Also, is there a difference between a conjunction and a coordinating conjunction?

4)
Finally, is whereas a conjunctive adverb or is it just a conjunction? I need to know how it should be punctuated when joining clauses.

Thanks a lot!!
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Eddie88Hi,

1)
Firsty, I know independent clause, dependent clause and that a phrase is when it is a group of words without a subject-verb relationship; however, are there more types than these three? >> Interjections (maybe, they are sort of stand-alone set phrases). Oh my! Oh dear! Heavens to mercy!

With this in mind, if one has wrtitten a complete setence, is it correect/allowed to have phrases added to it every time?>> I'm not sure what you mean. Sentences do not have any limit on how long they can be. Just read a bit of James Joyce.

That is, is it correct to have a phrase added to an independent clause every time as long as a comma separates the two? And does the comma have to be present? >> there are a few rules on commas, but some are up to the descretion of the author. Commas can change the interpretaion of a phrase.

2)
And secondly, when one breaks up a sentence and identifies (if it is a complex sentence) the two clauses and (a) phrase(s), do commas usually need to be used to separate dependent clauses and independent clauses from phrases?

For example, I was walking home bringing the food back to my friends.

I was walking home=indep clause
bringing the food back to my friends=phrase, as no subject

Here is an example where I know I need a comma to separate the two parts of the sentence, but why is it it different from the above sentence?
Here is a link to a discussion on punctuation between clauses: http://www.rscc.cc.tn.us/owl&writingcenter/OWL/Connect.html
And here is a link to 11 rules about commas: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/commas.htm
It was a really nice day, and I wanted to go surfing.

So, when does one know when a comma is needed to separate the phrase from the independent/dependent clause?

3)
Also, is there a difference between a conjunction and a coordinating conjunction?

4)
Finally, is whereas a conjunctive adverb or is it just a conjunction? I need to know how it should be punctuated when joining clauses (whereas is a subordinating conjunction, but can rarely have other uses See the links above..

Thanks a lot!!

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Thanks. I know the comma rules etc, but I am just a little confused about what can be added to a complete sentence.

This is a perfect example to explain my perplexity.

'I was walking home bringing the food back to my friends'

I was walking home is an independent clause

bringing the food back to my friends=is a phrase as there is a ver but no subject. Correct?

I want to know if these two parts can be joined together without a comma.

Sometimes a comma is needed to have the clause joined to the phrase but what about in this case?

I know I can rewrite it so that it says, 'I was walking home to bring the food back to my friends'

But can it just be written, 'I was walking home bringing the food back to my friends'?

Does it need a comma to be grammatically correct?
Thanks. I know the comma rules etc, but I am just a little confused about what can be added to a complete sentence.

This is a perfect example to explain my perplexity.

'I was walking home bringing the food back to my friends'

I was walking home is an independent clause

bringing the food back to my friends=is a phrase as there is a ver but no subject. Correct?

I want to know if these two parts can be joined together without a comma.

Sometimes a comma is needed to have the clause joined to the phrase but what about in this case?

I know I can rewrite it so that it says, 'I was walking home to bring the food back to my friends'

But can it just be written, 'I was walking home bringing the food back to my friends'?

Whatever is the answer, can you please tell me why, or the rule.

Does it need a comma to be grammatically correct?
1) 'I was walking home and bringing the food back to my friends' - now this is one clause with a complex verb. (was walking and was bringing) - a comma here is not correct.
2) 'I was walking home bringing the food back to my friends'
If you do not put a comma in after home, the sentence reads like sentence 1. (The structure is different, though)

But you can put it in if you want the reader to pause. That puts more emphasis on "walking home". The phrase "bringing food..." will be read as non-essential, that is extra information that is not necessary for to complete the meaning of the sentence.
I don't think this is the case here (if I were your friend, and hungry, it would be essential!). So leave the comma out.

Here is a case where commas make a difference:
Woman without her man is nothing.
Woman, without her, man is nothing.
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