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Well, thank you all for answering my doubts.

Let me put some examples to see if I really got it.

Passive examples: (What does it happen to the subject?)
The letter was posted a week ago. (The letter doesn't really perform the action of being posted. It receives the action of being posted. It receives the action expressed in the verb)
I was born in London but I was grown up by my uncle in the north of England. (I didn't grow up by myself. Indeed I was grown up by somebody. I received the action of being grown up.)
The company is not independent. It is owned by a much larger company. (Here the company receives the action of being owned. That's because it's passive)

Active examples: (What does the subject do?)
The letter posted a week ago arrived yesterday. (The subject (letter) performs the action of the verb (to be posted))
I was born in London but I grew up in the north of England. (The subject (I) performs the action of being grown up by itself)
The company is dependent. It owns a lot of little ones. (What does the subject (company) do? It owns a lot of others litle companys)

So am I right?
Mikael
Observations and experience told me passive voice and adverbial property are the two areas that seem to have caused much confusion as many learners were taught the simple rules of converting active sentence to passive, not the finer points of how and when to use it.

Passive examples: (What does it happen to the subject?)
The letter was posted a week ago. (The letter doesn't really perform the action of being posted. It receives the action of being posted. It receives the action expressed in the verb) RIght, and the focal point is on the letter.

I was born in London but I was rasied/ brought by my uncle in the north of England. (I didn't grow up by myself. Indeed I was brought up by somebody. I received the action of being grown up.)

The company is not independent. It is owned by a much larger company. (Here the company receives the action of being owned. That's because it's passive)Correct.

Active examples: (What does the subject do?)
The letter posted a week ago arrived yesterday. (The subject (letter) performs the action of the verb (to be posted))
No, This is an incorrect sentence. You need a subject to mail a letter, like John, I or somebody. I am not sure what is meant by "posting" a letter.

I was born in London but I grew up in the north of England
. This is a good sentence. (The subject (I) performs the action of being grown up by itself) That sounds a bit strange.

Grow up- infers to the transformation process in which an infant develops into adulthood. In human terms, we do not say "one is grown". However, you may hear expressions like "home grown problem", or a produce as "California grown" in passive voice.

The company is dependent. It owns a lot of little ones. (What does the subject (company) do? It owns a lot of others litle companys)

A company is a commercial entity. i.e. General Electric which owns a lot of subsidiaries.. It- refers to the company.

Does this help?
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MikaelPassive examples: (What does it happen happens to the subject?)
The letter was posted a week ago. (The letter doesn't really perform the action of being posted. It receives the action of being posted. It receives the action expressed in the verb) good
I was born in London but I was grown up raised by my uncle in the north of England. (I didn't grow up by myself. Indeed I was grown up raised by somebody. I received the action of being grown up raised.)
The company is not independent. It is owned by a much larger company. (Here the company receives the action of being owned. That's because it's passive) good

Active examples: (What does the subject do?)
The letter [which was] posted a week ago arrived yesterday. (The subject (letter)) performs the action of the verb (to be posted)) (to arrive))
I was born in London but I grew up in the north of England. (The subject (I) performs the action of being grown to grow up by itself)
The company is dependent. It owns a lot of little ones. (What does the subject (company) do? It owns a lot of others litle companys little companies) (verb (to own))
To be grown up is to be an adult. To grow up is to become an adult.

The letter posted a week ago is an active sentence, but it's not idiomatic. The verb "to post" is strictly transitive, and you're using it intransitively, like The letter tore. The true active verb in this sentence is "to arrive," which is intransitive, and something a letter can actively do.
The sentence, The letter was posted a week ago would be passive.
GoodmanDoes this help?
Yes, it helped so much.

Thank you all. My doubts are solved.

I'm going to review about this issue and if I have any doubt I'll post it here.

[]'s
Hi there everybody!

I guess I need some help with the same thing Emotion: wink

here we are:
...Sandy replied slowly. Then she stopped 
speaking. She was very worried. She walked back to the...

...'So a stranger rode away on a valuable horse,' I said. 'And he didn't 
come back. Were you surprised?'
 

Are they adjectives or it is a passive? To me, they both seem like a verb, but I'm not sure Emotion: smile

Actually I think I need some kind of explanation - what's going on with "an action" here.
 
PS.. I'm sorry I don't know what's happened to the font size...
 
 
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Dear Mikael,

The bold words in sentences1 & 2 are definitely verbs but they sound passive.

(To be + P.P)

But sometimes the boldface words can be adj if they follow with nouns.

E.g: "The coach substituted the injured player."

Hope it helps

Iman
imantaghaviThe coach substituted the injured player.
My understanding is that when using the transitive sense of "to substitute," we substitute A for B.
You seem to be suggesting that the coach put an injured player into the game.

Best wishes, - A.
Hi there everybody! It's me again.. I'm trying to fix my previous post here. Using "Paste from word" font-size looks fine. 
 

I guess I need some help with the same thing Emotion: wink

here we are:

...Sandy replied slowly. Then she stopped

speaking. She was very worried. She walked back to the...

...'So a stranger rode away on a valuable horse,' I said. 'And he didn't

come back. Were you surprised?'

Are they adjectives or it is a passive? To me, they both seem like a verb, but I'm not sure Emotion: smile

Actually I think I need some kind of explanation - what's going on with "an action" here.

PS.. By now i think the first one obviously is an adjective - becouse of "very".. it simply can't work this way..can it? Emotion: smile
 
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
In some cases, it's absolutely impossible to decide whether a past participle is being used as "to be" plus adjective, or as part of a passive structure.

In the case of "Were you surprised," it could be taken either way.

Context could suggest that "Someone surprised you."
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