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Hi teachers,

I'd like to know the difference between the following ? Do they have to do with Plural and sigular or no differences at all? Or something we just have to memorize? Can we just use either one and yet the meaning itself remain the same?

1. All exhibition booths should take care of thier own business inside their booths. (Or exhibiting booths should...) Exhibition Vs Exhibiting

2. We are having a celebratory dinner (or celebration dinner) after our sucessful public listing at NSAQ. Celebration Vs Celebratory

3. He's the adminstrive officer (or administration officer) for Century 21. Administrative Vs Administration

4, I need to apply for a working permit (or work permit). Work Vs Working

5. I need to have working experience (or work experience). Work Vs Working

6. Please look for "Carpeting" if you want to order caparets. Carpets Vs Carpeting

Thank you.

Tinanam
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tinanam0102Hi teachers,

I'd like to know the difference between the following ? Do they have to do with Plural and singular or no differences at all? Or something we just have to memorize? Can we just use either one and yet the meaning itself remain the same?

1. All exhibition booths should take care of thier own business inside their booths. (Or exhibiting booths should...) Exhibition Vs Exhibiting
Exhibition is correct. The booths are not exhibiting themselves.

2. We are having a celebratory dinner (or celebration dinner) after our successful public listing at NSAQ. Celebration Vs Celebratory Either one is OK. I prefer "celebration."

3. He's the administrative officer (or administration officer) for Century 21. Administrative Vs Administration The adjective is better.

4, I need to apply for a working permit (or work permit). Work Vs Working Work permit is correct. The permit is not working.

5. I need to have working experience (or work experience). Work Vs Working "Work experience" is better. Another expression is "I need to have experience working in a bank."

6. Please look for "Carpeting" if you want to order carpets. Carpets Vs Carpeting Either one could be on a sign in a store. Carpeting comes in rolls and cut to size to cover floors wall-to-wall. A carpet is a fixed-sized finished rectangular piece of material, often loomed by hand. It is often placed under a table, or in a hallway.

Unfortunately, in many cases I think you just have to memorise.

1. All exhibition booths should take care of thier own business inside their booths. (Or exhibiting booths should...) Exhibition Vs Exhibiting -- "Exhibition booths" is normally preferable to "exhibiting booths", but this sentence is not very good with either. If I've understood correctly, it would be better to say: "All exhibitors should conduct their business inside their booths."

2. We are having a celebratory dinner (or celebration dinner) after our sucessful public listing at NSAQ. Celebration Vs Celebratory -- Both are OK and have the same meaning.

3. He's the adminstrive officer (or administration officer) for Century 21. Administrative Vs Administration -- Both are OK and have the same meaning. However, someone's official title will probably technically be one or the other, and if you know it then you should use it.

4, I need to apply for a working permit (or work permit). Work Vs Working -- It should be "work permit". This is a document that permits you to work. ("Working permit" is possible but very unlikely in this sentence; it would mean a permit that functions as intended.)

5. I need to have working experience (or work experience). Work Vs Working -- The more usual expression is "work experience", but "working experience" also makes sense. To me the two have slightly different meanings, but I find it very hard to explain in simple terms what that difference is.

6. Please look for "Carpeting" if you want to order caparets. Carpets Vs Carpeting -- I'm not sure what context you have in mind here. Do you mean that "Carpeting" is written on a sign? Or is a heading in a directory or something? If so then you've no choice but to render it exactly as written. You need to guard against producing a rdiculous-sounding sentence. For example, "Please look for 'Carpeting' if you want to order carpeting" is plain dumb. "Please look for 'Carpeting' if you want to order carpets" still risks causing amusement.
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Hi AlpheccaStars and Mr. Wordy,

Thanks for you help.

One American client says to me: a celebration dinner, while I saw a post in Yahoo, saying Beckham is having a celebratory dinner.

Do you think it's probably because the difference between British English and American English?

Is "exhibition" in exhibition booth an adjective modifying "booth"?

If so, then "celebration" per se is a noun, and "celebratory" an adjective, would "celebratory" be more formal and justified in writing "invite", "minutes"?

The problem with "Carpeting"

It's in the exhibitor handbook for the Electronic Show.

Carpeting

All booths MUST have carpet or other suitable floor covering installed at the expense of the exhibitor and covering the complete floor area of your booth. No Exceptions.

The installation of your booth carpet must be within the confines of your own display area. If the booth is 10 feet deep, your carpet must be kept within this 10 foot depth and under no circumstances will allowances be made to permit the extension of your carpet into the aisle or into another booth not your own.

Food Sampling

The distribution of food samples is permitted with the following conditions: samples are free of charge, distribution is confined to the exhibitor’s own booth space, and items are provided in sample size quantities and must be approved by Show Management & Northlands Park.

From the text about, why the subject "Carpeting" is used "instead of"Carpet" or "Carpets"?

Is that true (My English teacher taught me that if we are writing for a title subject for each paragraph, like the underlined blue text above , we don't not use "verb" form in the title subject.) For example:

1. Using the telephone (> Could I reword: The use of telephone or To use the telephone?)

The telephone is a form of instnt communication which achieves quick responses,....

2. Taking messages (> Could I reword: To take messages?)

Taking telephone messages requires both oral and written communication skills.....

3. Preparing the material (>TCould I reword:o prepare the material? )

You must be certain of what you want the audience to learn from your talk.....



Thank you for your help in advance.

Tinanam



tinanam0102
One American client says to me: a celebration dinner, while I saw a post in Yahoo, saying Beckham is having a celebratory dinner.

Do you think it's probably because the difference between British English and American English?


I'm British and to me both are OK. To me, "celebratory" does not exactly seem "more formal" (as you ask later), but it does seem a slightly more "sophisticated" use of English, indicating that the writer knows the adjective "celebratory" and can be bothered to use it.
tinanam0102Is "exhibition" in exhibition booth an adjective modifying "booth"?
No, technically it's an attributive noun (I hope that's right!) -- a noun that's behaving a bit like an adjective in that it modifies another.
tinanam0102If so, then "celebration" per se is a noun, and "celebratory" an adjective,
Yes.
tinanam0102why the subject "Carpeting" is used "instead of"Carpet" or "Carpets"?
"Carpets" would also do, but "Carpeting" has more of a generic sense, referring to carpets in general, and the act of covering floors with carpets.
tinanam0102My English teacher taught me that if we are writing for a title subject for each paragraph, like the underlined blue text above , we don't not use "verb" form in the title subject
Yes, this is generally a good rule to follow. Section headings/titles in a descriptive or explanatory text should generally be nouns or noun phrases. "Caring for your cactus" is fine as a heading, but "Care for your cactus" and "To care for your cactus" aren't. ("Caring" does, of course, derive from a verb, but here it's behaving as a noun.)
tinanam0102Could I reword: The use of the telephone or To use the telephone?
The first is possible but clumsier than "Using the telephone". The second is not good as a heading.

tinanam0102 Could I reword: To take messages?)


Not good as a heading.

tinanam0102Could I reword: To prepare the material?


Not good as a heading.
Hi Mr. Wordy,

I'm sorry I have one more question:

Does "Carpeting" in the title derive from a verb "carpet" and not from "carpeting" which happens to be a noun itself?

Thanks

Tinanam
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tinanam0102Does "Carpeting" in the title derive from a verb "carpet" and not from "carpeting" which happens to be a noun itself?

One would need to study the history of early uses of these words to be absolutely sure, but as far as I know, the use of "carpeting" as a noun derives from the verb "to carpet" (meaning to cover with carpet). This is the usual pattern for such "-ing" words.

Adding "-ing" to a verb stem creates the present participle, which can be used in a purely verbal sense, as in "He's carpeting the floor". The "-ing" form can also be used in the manner of a noun, to mean "the act of doing that thing", as in "Carpeting is difficult to do properly". Technically, this is called a "gerund". Sometimes the "-ing" form can develop a life of its own as a noun, and take on new associated meanings. I'd guess this is the case with "carpeting", which in addition to meaning "the act of laying carpets" can also mean "carpets in general" or "carpet material".

According to http://www.usc-teresafanego.es/hybrids.pdf ,

"... gerundive clauses [an example given earlier is "Inviting the twins was a bad mistake"] emerged in Late Middle English. In this type the ing form is not participial in origin [...], but descends instead from an Old English derivational suffix which could be freely added to verb stems to form abstract nouns of action, as in OE spilling ‘destruction’ (<spillan ‘destroy’) or OE wending ‘turning’ (<wendan ‘turn’)."
Hi Mr. Wordy,

Thank you so much. Now I can put my mind to rest without having all these hanging around my head.
Hi tinanam,

One further point that's relevant to your questions about "-ing" words but may not have been explicitly mentioned...

"A speeding car" means "a car that is speeding". However, "a swimming pool" does not mean "a pool that is swimming", it means "a pool that is used for swimming".

You can't tell just from the form of the written words which meaning should be assumed. For example, "a racing car" usually means "a car that is used for racing", but it could potentially mean "a car that is racing". You can only tell by considering which meaning makes most sense, or through familiarity with the idiomatic uses of English.
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