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---- the road conditions were rather bad, we did not reach the town so late.

a) whereas b) as c) now that d) much as e) given that

Which choice would you go for, D or E? Due to RATHER, I felt there would be something weird with MUCH AS, whereas GIVEN THAT look not so inappropriate considerind its meaning of "considering" . Emotion: smile

Thank you very much in advance.
Comments  
so late??
IMO, until late, for which I'd use b).
This is a hard one because of that 'so late'.

Taking 'so' to mean 'very' it's still not an obvious choice.
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OK, now I see it works with a) for "so late."

With the meaning of "it wasn't so bad in the end":

Whereas the road conditions were rather bad, we did not reach the town so late.
Marius HancuOK, now I see it works with a) for "so late."

With the meaning of "it wasn't so bad in the end":

Whereas the road conditions were rather bad, we did not reach the town so late.
Actually, I would put an ALTHOUGH there instead of WHEREAS. I think the tester wanted us to go for MUCH AS, for it nearly means, in very formal context, ALTHOUGH. But I somehow think this choice weird in thiss sentence.
whereas= since, although, while

but I agree that although is more clear
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Marius Hancuwhereas= since, although, while

but I agree that although is more clear

But in Turkey, we were thought and continue to teach that WHEREAS and sometimes WHILE are used to express direct contrast, while ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, THOUGH and sometimes WHILE are used for concessive contrast.
Mamger
Marius Hancuwhereas= since, although, while

but I agree that although is more clear

But in Turkey, we were thought and continue to teach that WHEREAS and sometimes WHILE are used to express direct contrast, while ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, THOUGH and sometimes WHILE are used for concessive contrast.
That's good for the main meanings (3a), but they're synonyms in some circumstances (3b,c):
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whereas

2 : considering that : in view of the fact that : SINCE -- usually used to introduce a preamble (as to a law or contract) that is the basis of a following declaration, affirmation, command, or request

3

a
: when in fact : while on the contrary : the case being in truth that -- used to introduce a statement in opposition or contrast to a preceding or sometimes following statement <was spending practically all of his time on the inside dealing with things, whereas his yearnings were to deal more with people -- W.J.Reilly>

b
: ALTHOUGH<seeing I have once begun, I will speak to my Lord, whereas I am dust and ashes -- Gen 18:27 (NCE)> <whereas it is quite dangerous to draw conclusions ... one cannot avoid being struck with some gross changes -- Abram Kardiner>

c
: at the same time that : WHILE<its isolation favored the development of a unified and distinctive culture, whereas its nearness to the European continent was a guarantee against a too sharp differentiation from western civilization -- Kemp Malone>


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As far as I understand, the tester, quite probably a non-native, wants us to go for AS MUCH, for he/she thinks it measn ALTHOUGH. With the versionsa I made up, it may mean "although", but not with the sentence given in the question:

Terrible as the road conditions were, we did not reach the town so late. (=Although the road conditions were terrible, we did not reach the town so late.)
Bad as the road conditions were, we did not reach the town so late. (=Although the road conditions were bad, we did not reach the town so late.)
Much as they tried to prevent us, we did not reach the town so late. (=Although they tried (very) much to prevent us, we did not reach the town so late.)
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