+0
Like adjective, adverbs can take complements consisting of prepositional phrases. The structure of adverb phrases is shown in (1-5) takes prepositional phrase complements.

(1) It is done almost identically to the method that is currently preferred.

(2) These purchases were handled similarly to all state purchases.

(3) A duel resolves disputes independently of the law.

(4) This branch operates separately from the rest of the company.

(5) The information was released simultaneously with a description of the new plan.

(from the Teacher's Grammar of English)

Q) I can understand adverbs in (1) and (2) are complements because adjectives of them are used with 'to.'(e.g., that's identical/simillar to this.) But, I don't understand why adverbs in (3),(4) and (5) forms complements with the prepositions? (I found they can be also used independently (e.g., They worked independent/separate/simultanously).

Must adverbs in (3), (4) and (5) need the prepositions as their complements?
+0
moon7296Must adverbs in (3), (4) and (5) need the prepositions as their complements?
Do the adverbs in ... need ...? or Must the adverbs in ... have ...?

In those sentences, I would say so. If the prepositional phrase is omitted, it is implicit from the context. See below.

moon7296I found they can be also used independently (e.g., They worked independently/separately/simultanously)
The plural subject suggests these:

They worked independently of each other. / possibly independently of the others.

They worked separately from each other. / possibly separately from the others.

They worked simultaneously with each other. / possibly simultaneously with the others.

(In point of fact, the third one is a little unidiomatic, but I'm going to leave it just as an illustration of the general principle.)

CJ
Comments  
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
Thank you CJ.

You corrected my original post after copying some and correct them below since you had said the system would get it work againEmotion: smile.

Ah.. if the prepositional phrases are omitted, it is implicit from the context; then this means they(PP) are not necessarily included, I think. Then the application of the term 'complement' here is not appropriate, I suppose.
moon7296Then the application of the term 'complement' here is not appropriate, I suppose.
I don't know, to be frank. It may be that 'complement' is still an appropriate term for the PP when it is included.

CJ