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1-They threw stones at us on the roof.

Can this sentence ever be used if they were on the roof and we weren't?

For instance, in reply to the question: 'What did they do on the roof?'

2-They shot at us in the bus.

Can this sentence ever be used if they were in the bus and we weren't?

For instance, in reply to the question: 'What did they do in the bus?'

3-They phoned us in their office.

Can this sentence ever be used if they were phoning us from their office?

For instance, in reply to the question: 'What did they do in their office?'

4-In their office, they phoned us.

Is this sentence correct? Does it mean that they phoned us from their office?
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1-3-- Yes, of course they could, but the speaker only creates confusion by doing so.
4-- Yes and yes, but the fronting of the adverbial is not normal.
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Hi,

You can use any sentence you want to. Emotion: smile

I think that when you say, "Can this sentence ever be used . . . ?", you mean 'Will people correctly understand the intended meaning of it?'

Here's my opinion about your sentences.

1-They threw stones at us on the roof.

Can this sentence ever be used if they were on the roof and we weren't?

No. I'd say

On the roof, they threw stones at us.

Better is They threw stones at us from the roof.

2-They shot at us in the bus.

Can this sentence ever be used if they were in the bus and we weren't?

No.

In the bus, they shot at us.

Better is They shot at us from the bus.

3-They phoned us in their office.

Can this sentence ever be used if they were phoning us from their office?

Maybe, but a little odd.

In their office, they phoned us.

Better is They phoned us from their office.

4-In their office, they phoned us.

Is this sentence correct? Does it mean that they phoned us from their office?

Yes.

Clive