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Hi

One thing we need to look at is that 1 percent of the world’s population is responsible for
50 percent of the greenhouse gas pollution. So part of the problem is that the affluent
people of the earth have not acknowledged their primary responsibility in causing the
problem and in solving the problem. Once we can agree to that, then we can look at the major obstacles.

Does it mean: once we consent to this fact that they do not take responsibility and do not want to solve the problem, then we can look at the major obstacles?
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It means once we can (all) agree that the statement in the preceding sentence is correct.
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Newguest Once we can agree to that, then we can look at the major obstacles.Does it mean: once we consent to this fact that they do not take responsibility and do not want to solve the problem, then we can look at the major obstacles?
The writer made a mistake. He meant "once we agree on that". "Concur", not "consent".
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Comments  
"agree to that" is fine for me.
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
GPY"agree to that" is fine for me.
Then your conception of the meaning of "agree to" needs tweaking.
enoonThen your conception of the meaning of "agree to" needs tweaking.
Or yours does.

On second thoughts you may have a point.