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Hello,

A distinct lack of consideration for those more vulnerable is particularly prevalent in the youth, who continue to go to pubs and clubs, erroneously convinced of their own immunity and invincibility. This is all in defiance of scientific advice and pleas for people to physically distance – to stay indoors – and to refrain from behaviours like stockpiling.

https://www.varsity.co.uk/opinion/18983

How can I interpret “all” here? How does it contribute to the meaning of the sentence?

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You can reword this as "All of this is in defiance of scientific advice and pleas for people to physically distance – to stay indoors – and to refrain from behaviours like stockpiling."

Does this clarify the meaning for you?

Clive

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book mango 418 How can I interpret “all” here? How does it contribute to the meaning of the sentence?

I see it differently. The writer, frustrated at his own inability to express himself, has tossed in an "all" for no reason other that that he thinks it will lend force to his ill-thought-out argument. Unless, of course, there is more in the previous paragraphs that would permit him to say "all" here, meaning all the behaviors that he wants to demonize and not just youthful insouciance.

That's another possibility. But it's not poorly written, and the writer doesn't seem to me to have much trouble expressing himself.

Clive

The "all" reaches back through the text, past what you have quoted, to a prior sentence in the original document: "Calls for kindness have been replaced by empty supermarket shelves and ignorance in the face of a global crisis."

Thank you for including the hyperlink. Context matters. There is also a reasonable possibility that the article you linked to was edited prior to publication and additional words or sentences that the "all" referred to have been removed for brevity. This often happens prior to publication.

Anonymous seems to have judged the grammar based on the viewpoint being expressed and found it less acceptable than it would be if anonymous agreed with the ideas. I have chosen to try to ignore the ideas and focus on the grammar, since the question wasn't about the dubious merits of the ideas or the paucity of logic.

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