What is the subtlety of "He already will have left by now" in the following dialogue? What is the difference between "He already has left by now" and "He already will have left by now"?
(Jason is telling his daughter, Sarah, to call and stop her boy friend in New York from coming)
Jason: Well, go call him back.
Sarah: I wish I could.
Jason: You can.
Sarah: He already will have left by now.
Come to think of it, shouldn't it be "He has already left by now" or "He will have already left by now"? (See the orders?)
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Yes, the normal word order is 'He will have already left' or 'He will already have left'. It is more tentative than 'He has already left'. It indicates the speakers estimate of a future event based on some knowledge he has.
Me too; I misspoke-- probably misled myself by 'will'. The use of 'will' here is not future, though it does indicate 'the speaker's estimate of the event based on some knowledge', as I said-- it is the use of the auxiliary as prediction of an occurrence.
 Mel will be playing basketball with his friends now at the park.
 Jacob will have arrived at the Amtrack station by now.
 Stan will have been singing for two straight hours now. (But not just only for two straight hours. It can be interpreted as a future event without enough context)
 It will be raining for months on end now on the island.(But not just only for months on end. It can be interpreted as a future event without enough context)
 Santa will have left his home by a week ago.
6] Chrisy will have been so depressed and cooped up in her home by a week ago, but she has been back to normal again thanks to the medication.
What about more complicated ones like the following? Do they make sense at all?
 He will have finished the project by yesterday.
8] He will have had to finish the project by yesterday.
 He will have to have finished the project by yesterday.
 He will have been able to finish the project by yesterday.
 He will be able to have finished the project by yesterday.
Many thanks in advance for your help.
Yes, it doesn't seem to work in the past with 'will'; just as with present perfect, this perfect form requires a relationship with a 'relative' now.
'They will have arrived home by now' surmises that the arrival was in the indefinite past but may include 'now'. 'By yesterday' does not admit that possiblity.
(And sorry, I don't understand your problem with emoticons.)
People are waiting to help.
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