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Example:
He is G. Bush, the President of the United states. (G.Bush=the President of the U.S i.e. apposition)

Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Toyota, Honda are the mainstream brands. (Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Toyota, Honda are all different companies i.e. juxtaposition)


Then in this sentence:
To the Japanese, a 'foreign culture' has always represented something elegant and superior to their own, a pleasant ornament to wear, a useful accessory to adopt.


what is the grammatical relation between something elegant and superior to their own, a pleasant ornament to wear, and a useful accessory to adopt? Apposition or juxtaposition?
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Comments  
Hi Taka,
To me, this is a tricky question, especially since my dictionary gives 'juxtaposition' as a meaning of 'apposition'.
Here are some thoughts.

Apposition
Words placed together to qualify or explain the first word.
My friend, a teacher, ....
Bozo the clown

Juxtaposition
Words placed together to highlight a contrast.
My friend, my enemy, ...

I tend to think juxtaposition is a form of apposition used to contrast.
By this definition, your sentence about foreign cultures uses apposition, but not the contrasting or juxtaposing kind.

I would say your list of car manufacturers is neither apposition nor juxtaposition, it's just a list, and as such the last item should be preceded by 'and'.

I might be wrong here. Others may offer you a much better explanation.

Best wishes,
Clive
I didn't mean such contrast, Clive. I should have said 'a series of items' for the second one, as you say. Sorry about the confusion.

Now, isn't there any possibility that they are just a series of items? Or are they in apposition?
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Hi,
To the Japanese, a 'foreign culture' has always represented something elegant and superior to their own, a pleasant ornament to wear, a useful accessory to adopt.


OK, I hope I understand now.
To me, this is not a list for the grammatical reason that the last item is not preceded by 'and'. This signals to me that the writer is intending apposition.
The meaning also suggests apposition to me, although it could easily be put in list form and there wouldn't be a lot of change in the meaning.

Consider;
A. He is my husband, friend, father of my children.
B. He is my husband, friend and father of my children.
To me, 'A' signals a closer connection.
As regards usage, we write a lot more in style 'B' than style 'A'. 'A' sounds literary and 'higher style'.

As I said, others may offer other views.
Clive
Clive.
To me, this is not a list for the grammatical reason that the last item is not preceded by 'and'.


Are you saaying that a series of items has to end with 'and item x'? I thought 'and' was the signal of the end of the series, which means 'there is noting more.'

Example:
There were Taka, Clieve, and MrP in the room. (Only three people there. No more).
Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Toyota, Honda are the mainstream brands. (Those five companies are not the only ones. There may be more. They are just examples).
Hi,
Any list should end with 'and (last item)'. (Or other words depending on the syntax, eg 'or')
Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Toyota, Honda are the mainstream brands. (Those five companies are not the only ones. There may be more. They are just examples).


You need to say '.... and Honda are ...'.
A list is a list. If you want to qualify or describe the list in some way, you need to explain in words. eg
Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Toyota and Honda are some of the mainstream brands.
Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Toyota and Honda are examples of the mainstream brands.

Best wishes,
Clive
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I'm not sure "and" is the point here. Adding an "and" will not make this sound like a plausible list. The items sound like the same thing described in different ways.
Hi Woodcutter,
I don't understand. Would you say 'Tom, Mary, John came to class'? They are different entities, as are Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Toyota and Honda.
Clive
The lack of 'and' is an indication of apposition, as you say. However, I think you could add 'and' and the sentence would still read like apposition.
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