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1. I have one full and one partial sentences from my QT book and am wondering if the definite article the is optional for both sentences.

... hold every thought captive to (the???) knowledge of Christ.

We are (the???) sons and daughters of God.

2.Which sentence is right? Or are they all right?

It will help them improve English.

It will help them to improve English.

Answering the call of God enables Him to work within us those things that are pleasing to Him.

Answering the call of God enables Him to work within us on those things that are pleasing to Him.
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1. The articles seem inappropriate.

2. These are right:

It will help them improve English.
It will help them to improve English.
Answering the call of God enables Him to work within us those things that are pleasing to Him.
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to work those things
means
to produce/engender/bring forth those things, make those things come to life in us

to work on those things
means
to (try) to influence those (pre-existing) things in us, make them change

Thus what you mean to say is very important.
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Comments  
Thank you, MisterM.

As to the third sentence of your answering post, let me, if I may, take out one irrelevant-at-the-moment phrase to simplify my line of questioning. Why is that only the first can prevail?

Answering the call of God enables Him to work those things that are pleasing to Him.

Answering the call of God enables Him to work on those things that are pleasing to Him.

What is the difference assuming the overall context is the same?

to work those things

to work on those things.
 Marius Hancu's reply was promoted to an answer.
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We may say
We are the sons and daughters of God.
only if we think that we are God's only sons and daughters (a sect might think that way).

Thank you for your two previous replies. They helped me a great deal.