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These are four sentences extracted from a news article in order of reading:

1) The government may be forced to take over the management of Pegasus Philip Wong King Hang Christian Primary School cum Junior Secondary School, which has been running on a provisional license for the past eight years.

2) He said the bureau is considering contacting other sponsoring bodies to see if they are interested in taking up management of the school.

3) If necessary, the bureau will take on the school's management to ensure that classes are not affected.

4) School supervisor Ada Wong Ying-kay said the bureau will discuss with the sponsoring body the timetable for the transition of management.

5) Asked if the bureau shouold be held responsible for the long delay in registration, Chen stressed the school was running legally under a provisional registered license.

I wonder if 'take over', 'take up' and 'take on' mean the same and why 'management' in the first sentence is preceded by 'the', whereas the same word in the second and fourth sentences is not. Also, do 'running under a provisional license' and 'running on a provisional license' have the exact same meaning?

Thanks so much in advance!
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Hi,

These are four sentences extracted from a news article in order of reading:

1) The government may be forced to take over the management of Pegasus Philip Wong King Hang Christian Primary School cum Junior Secondary School, which has been running on a provisional license for the past eight years.

2) He said the bureau is considering contacting other sponsoring bodies to see if they are interested in taking up management of the school.

3) If necessary, the bureau will take on the school's management to ensure that classes are not affected.

4) School supervisor Ada Wong Ying-kay said the bureau will discuss with the sponsoring body the timetable for the transition of management.

5) Asked if the bureau shouold be held responsible for the long delay in registration, Chen stressed the school was running legally under a provisional registered license.

I wonder if 'take over', 'take up' and 'take on' mean the same

Sometimes very little difference is intended, but here are a few comments on nuances.

'take over' - Stresses the idea of replacing the previous party. Often implies that the taking iver was not welcomed by the other party. Here, the implication is that the previous management was not doing a good job in some way.

'take up' - Stresses the ide of accepting a task or responsibility, beginning a task or responsibility.

'take on' - Suggests that the task is difficult or a burden.

and why 'management' in the first sentence is preceded by 'the', whereas the same word in the second and fourth sentences is not.

'The' makes the reference a bit more specific, but really, in these examples, it makes no real difference. They could all use 'the', or not use it.

Also, do 'running under a provisional license' and 'running on a provisional license' have the exact same meaning?

Probably, here. But again, a comment on nuances.

under More formal, more 'correct'. Sometimes suggests that the licence covers more than one party. eg Possibly, the school district has one licence that is for all schools in the district.

on More informal.
with Is also commonly used.

Best wishes, Clive
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ChristanfordI wonder if 'take over', 'take up' and 'take on' mean the same
Since the article is all about the same subject, these verbs mean about the same thing.
Christanfordwhy 'management' in the first sentence is preceded by 'the', whereas the same word in the second and fourth sentences is not
The first sentence is talking about a specific management, the current people who are in charge of operating the school.
The 2nd and 4th sentences are talking about the general process of management, not the specific people who are doing it.
ChristanfordAlso, do 'running under a provisional license' and 'running on a provisional license' have the exact same meaning?
Yes.