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A. Can I have some Coke, please?
B. Can I have Coke, please?

C. Could you get me some water?
D. Could you get me water?

E. Have you got a lighter?
F. Have you got lighter?

G. Do you have an asparagus soup?
H. Do you have asparagus soup?

Questions:
1. Are the above highlighted articles/determiners always necessary to make the sentence gramatically correct?
2. Removing the articles/determiners, does it change the meaning?
3. Which of the above sentences sound natural?
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Comments  
1. Are the above highlighted articles/determiners always necessary to make the sentence gramatically correct?-- It is required grammatically in E; it is grammatically wrong in F and G (unless perhaps you are asking for a can of the soup), and it is native English only in A, C, E and H.

2. Removing the articles/determiners, does it change the meaning?-- No.

3. Which of the above sentences sound natural?- A, C, E and H.
Thank you for your explanation. I really appreciate it.

Just a follow up question, why is H (w/o 'some') natural while B & D (with 'some') are not? I believe they all describe noncountable nouns. Kindly clarify.

Does also saying 'Do you have some asparagus soup?' sound natural?
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Should singular countable nouns always have an article? Thanks again.
Sorry, this is just to edit my prior question...

Should singular countable nouns always have an article like in sentence E?
AnonymousShould singular countable nouns always have an article like in sentence E?
Yes.

CJ
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Thanks CJ for that confirmation.

Mister Micawber / CJ,

Why does H sound natural while B & D do not? They all have noncountable nouns so why do B & D require the determiner 'some' before the noun to make it sound natural while H can do without?

B. Can I have Coke, please?
D. Could you get me water?
H. Do you have asparagus soup?
B. Can I have Coke, please?

D. Could you get me water?

H. Do you have asparagus soup?

I think that questions B and D are different from H in structure/meaning. In both B and D you're primarily interested in getting some water/Coke (focus on an unspecified but limited quantity) whereas in H the focus of the question is whether or not they have asparagus soup (quantity is not revelant here at all)

The word Coke is very similar to the word coffee, beer and some other normally uncountable nouns. You can make it countable simply by putting "a" before it.

Can I have a Coke, pleae? (= a bottle of Coke)
Thanks Ivanhr for your helpful explanation. I really appreciate it.

Ivanhr, Mister Micawber or CJ,

Is it appropriate to say to a wait staff, for example, "Can I have some (unspecified) Coke, please?" when I know specifically they serve a bottle of Coke?

I think saying "Can I have some Coke, please?" is more appropriate when asking for refill like when you're on a plane. Please confirm.

Sorry, this might seem simple questions but I'd really like to learn. Thank you.
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