+0
Hello,

Could any native speaker deal with my sincere quiry?

{The two countries are at war.}

According to the definition of "at", the "war" shows "a state of war"?
1. Does "a state of war" mean a state with respect to war?
2. Can it be rephrased? The two countries are in a state of war.

Thank you for your help.
Comments  
bepleasedAccording to the definition of "at", the "war" shows "a state of war"?
1. Does "a state of war" mean a state with respect to war?
2. Can it be rephrased? The two countries are in a state of war.
Yes. 'at war' means 'in a state of war.

1. "a state of war" might be considered "a state with respect to war", but maybe it is better paraphrased as "a state that can be described as war".
2. It can certainly be rephrased as The two countries are in a state of war. (Of course, "at war" saves words, so we normally say it the shorter way.)

CJ
Hello,

Thank you and you are always there, come rain or shine.

A similar question again, what about "a liquid state" / "a confused state of mind"?

As you suggestion, a liquid state = a state described as liquid or called for liquid;
a confised state of mind = a state called for confused mind
;

Another question, about "the quality of the service" ?

Is it "the quality called for the service" ?

In "The knife is for cutting bread", cutting bread shows the purpose of cutting bread accordint to the definition of "for" = shows purpose,
And we can say: the purpose described as cutting bread.

about "the purpose of education"?

Is it "the purpose sescribed as education"?

Thank you for your help.
Teachers: We supply a list of EFL job vacancies
bepleaseda liquid state = a state described as liquid
Yes. This is reasonable. This is chemists' terminology. a solid state, a liquid state, a gaseous state.
bepleaseda confised state of mind = a state called for confused mind
Not exactly. The mind has many states (=moods, emotions, feelings). This particular state of mind is a state of confusion, a state (of mind) that can be described as confused ~ a state that concerns the mind and that can be described as confused. 'a clear state of mind' ~ a state that concerns the mind and that can be described as clear.
bepleasedthe quality of the service
There are many qualities. Good, bad, not so good, not so bad, extremely good, extremely bad, about average.
There are many entities that can be judged according to their quality. Service, materials, performance, clothing, food.
You can put "quality of" with any of these to refer to a judgment - the degree to which these things are good or not good.

The quality of the service was very good.
The quality of the food was very bad.
The quality of the president's clothing was about average.

So 'the quality of' is like 'the goodness judgment about'.
bepleasedThe knife is for cutting bread
~ The purpose of the knife is to cut bread. ~ The knife helps to achieve the goal of having bread that is cut.
the purpose of education ~ the goal that education helps to achieve.

'purpose' is a word like 'quality'. But whereas quality concerns only degrees of goodness, there are an infinite number of purposes (~ goals). To become a chess champion, to climb a mountain, to write a story, to answer a question, to see Africa, to teach French, to cut bread, to fix a faucet, to win a contest, ... These can all be purposes or goals.

And there are many entities that are regarded as having a purpose.

The purpose of fertilizer is to make plants grow.
The purpose of reading is to become informed about a subject.
The purpose of shoe laces is to prevent your shoes from falling off!

So 'the purpose of' is like 'the goal you might more easily achieve [with / by using]'.
_______

There are many different reasons why "of" connects words. You may never be able to make a complete list.

CJ
Hi CJ,

How great your winsome and gentle suggestions have contributed to the comfort of the hard thinking way.

About the suggestions I'd like to share the experience with you.

1. The quality of the service was very good.------the service of high quality (here of = having)
2. the quality of the service (here, of = in relation to / connected with) like "the speed of driving" but it is opposite to
"driving at the speed"

3. a state of mind (here, of = done towards)

4. the purpose of fertilizer (here, of = done by)
5. the purpose of making plants grow well (here, of = i.e. / by the purpose is meant "making the plants grow well" / the purpose is a sign of making plants grow well)

Thank you for your help.
Hi CJ,

About the usage of "reason", please check my understanding:

1. The "reason" works on the premise that the reason is the cause of an action.

2. the reason for an action (here, for = in support of)

3. an action for the reason (here, for = depending on / being based on)

4. in the flood, the reason of that heavy rain (here, of = i.e. / that is )

Thank you for your help.
Site Hint: Check out our list of pronunciation videos.
Hi CJ,

Could you provide remedy for me and check it?

Thank you for your help.

1. The first step of “purpose”:
When the purpose occurs to one, there are two forms to express.
Tape A is one has something in the mind as one’s purpose / or one purposes the thing or one wants to do something.
Tape B is to have a plan in one’s mind to do something
So the purpose is an intended aim at the time.

2. The second step of “purpose”:
To help one to do the purpose, one has to do some action.
The purpose becomes one’s reason for an action. (for shows in support of )
And the action is for its purpose. (for shows that the action attends on its purpose / or that the purpose of the action is its purpose)
Or the action is directed towards its purpose.
So, the purpose is at the bottom of logic position at the time.

Show the common language with the two steps of purpose:

She felt offended at my remarks, but it wasn’t my intention to hurt her. ---the first step of purpose of type A
I have a purpose of seeing my family.(of shows i.e.) ----the first step of purpose of type A
The following of the first step of purpose of type B are quoted from Macmillan Dictionary.

intend to do something:
What do you intend to do about this?
intend someone/something to do something:
I never intended it to turn out like that.
intend doing something:
I intend using the report as evidence to support my case .
fully intend doing something/to do something:
He had fully intended to tell her exactly what had happened .
intend someone something:
She felt certain that he intended her no harm .
intend that:
It is intended that formal discussions should commence in the near future .

intend no offence/disrespect:
I’m sorryno offence was intended .
intend something as something:
Perhaps it was intended as a joke .
intend something by something:
She wondered what he intended by that statement .

“What was the purpose of your coming toLondon?”(of shows done by / the action is for making the purpose)-----the second step of purpose
I came toLondonto see my family / for the purpose of seeing my family. (for shows attending on)----the second step of purpose

We need a replacement for the secretary who left.---the second step of purpose
= We need a replacement which is for the purpose of the secretary who left. (for shows attending on)

These flowers are for you. [for shows that the purpose of these flowers is to you. (of shows done by)]------the second step of purpose
= I have a purpose of something to you. To help me do this, I bring these flowers to you. (of shows i.e.)
Your last two examples are very indirect, but I suppose your logic applies in those as well, at least to some extent.

You are really getting more into the area of philosophy than into grammar, so I can't really help much.

Let me suggest a book that I think is very closely related to the ideas you are working with in this post. You may find this book, as well as other books by the same author, quite interesting.

John Searle: Reason in Action

Searle writes mostly on the philosophy of language. He is a professor at the University of California at Berkeley.

CJ