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Does "the" and "a" affect the preprosition?

I pray at a church.
I pray in a church.
"meet me at the church"
"meet me in the church"

I'm practicing in the studio.
I'm practicing at the studio.
I'm practicing in a studio.
I'm practicing at a studio.

I was sleeping in the streets.
I was sleeping on the streets. <--- doesn't "on the street" sound more logical than "in"?
I was sleeping on the street. <--- since street isn't plural, does it mean a specific street?

I'm on the bus. <-- I usually hear this but it doesn't make sense. Why is it "on"?
I'm in the bus.
I'm on a bus.
I'm in a bus.

After asking my English teachers, I still don't really understand the difference between "at" and "in". Could you explain this as simple as you can? Thanks in advance.
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Does "the" and "a" affect the preposition? -- No

I was sleeping in/on the streets. <--- doesn't "on the street" sound more logical than "in"-- No, not to me.
I was sleeping on the street. <--- since street isn't plural, does it mean a specific street? -- Not necessarily.

I'm on the bus. <-- I usually hear this but it doesn't make sense. Why is it "on"?-- It is a large vehicle-- floor space is large compared to height/depth, hence the concept is of being 'on' a surface.

I still don't really understand the difference between "at" and "in". -- Briefly: 'at' is a point reference: I am at the church, not at the studio. 'In' is a three-dimensional reference: I am in the studio, not out on the street. Often, either will do-- the listener will interpret the situation appropriately.

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In addition to what Mr M has said: there is a difference between in church and at a/the church:

You seldom see him in church.

- No article, worshipping, attending a divine service

He is in the church right now.
- He is inside the building, he may be a tourist taking pictures.

I'll meet you at the church.
- Not necessarily inside the building. The church door may even be locked.

Vehicles used for public transport usually take on:
He is on the bus / on the [air]plane / on the train.
There is an Alfred Hitchcock film Strangers on a Train.

CB
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I'm on the bus. <-- I usually hear this but it doesn't make sense. Why is it "on"?

I believe that you're thinking that it implies that I am on the roof of the bus.
If we say that I am on the car, it will also give the impression that I am on the roof of the car.
According to an English usage book, we say 'on the bus' because we get on the bus. On the other hand, we say that we are in the car because we get in/into the car.

However, strictly speaking, it is not wrong to say that we are in the bus, but 'on the bus' is more commonly used. And I don't think many people will ask why; they just follow what most people say.

I hope my explanation clears your doubt.
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Hello, Cool Breeze.

It seems like you know what you are talking about. Could you answer this one for me, please? What is the difference between in the hospital and at the hospital? Is it the same as for in/at the church? Thank you,

Fred
Hi Fred
I stumbled upon your question by accident because for some mysterious reason I had received no notification about it. I hope the moderators fix the bug.
When a building is referred to, the difference between in and at is usually that in implies being inside the building while at may indicate being outside the building as well. Thus the answer to your question is: yes.
There are some words that have a special meaning when used without an article, and hospital is one of them. If you are ill, in other words, you are a patient, you are in hospital (British) or in the hospital (American). If you are a doctor or a nurse, you work in/at a/the hospital. Context determines which article you should use. If you are in a big city where there are many hospitals, you would perhaps say: He works at a hospital. If you and the person you are talking to are in a small town that has only one hospital, which you both know very well, you would say: He works at the hospital.
If you are going to meet your friend on the street outside a hospital, you normally say: I'll meet you at the hospital. You need the because neither person is a patient and you mean the building.
CB