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We have to raise the necessary capital = correct sentence

We have an adverb phrase we want to integrate into the above sentence:

before the end of the month = when

Before means at or during a time earlier than (the the end of this month)



So, our problem now has been narrowed down to whether we can insert the phrase in the sentence, in the above place.

We have to raise the necessary capital (before the end of the month) = at a time before the end of the month = correct sentence

We have (before the end of the month) to raise the necessary capital = by the same token, I think it is correct.


Question: what is wrong with my reasoning?
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Comments  (Page 2) 
Inco.

<'I have until 6pm to call Marry'

is acceptable; but it is unacceptable to me. However,

'I have from now until 6pm to call Mary' sounds fine.>

The meaning of "until" is from now to a later point in time. The "from now" is redundant there.
Milky
I have from now until 6pm to call Mary

The meaning of "until" is from now (or not now) to a later point in time. The "from now" is redundant there.

Hi,

Why the sentence with 'until' is acceptable, and with 'before' it is not?Emotion: rolleyes

Until = from a specified, or unknown, time to a time later than that.

before = not later than the specified time

Is it because 'until refers to a period of time, and before refers to a future point in time dimension?

Another question: can I substitute refers with does?
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<Why the sentence with 'until' is acceptable, and with 'before' it is not?>

Convention. Collocation. Fixed-expressions.
Hi Incho

I agree with the previous posters completely; I would just like to elaborate a little from a non-native speaker's standpoint to a non-native speaker. We're both foreigners, right?Emotion: smile

Since there are hardly any inflections in English, the word order is very rigid and certain phrases and expressions are often placed wherever they are placed for no apparent reason. I'd like to suggest you get a good grammar book written with non-native speakers in mind and take a look at the chapter entitled Word Order in it. Grammars written by non-native speakers tend to be better for this.

I don't have enough time to deal with word order in detail here, but here are some basics.

Think twice before you place anything between the main verb and the object. It is often possible to put an indirect object between the two, and if the object is long, you may put something short between it and the verb. Examples:

I saw him there. OK
I saw there him. WRONG

I heard there the language of my childhood. OK
I gave him a book. OK

There are three safe places for adverbs and the like in a clause (A, B and C):

(A) He is (B) reading a book (C).

Some words can be placed in all these positions without any real change in meaning:
Now he is reading a book.
He is now reading a book.
He is reading a book now.

Position A:
Usually more emphatic than the other positions. Adverbs denoting time or place are often placed in initial position:
Yesterday I met an old friend.
In Dar es Salaam it rained all week.
On the table lay a book that had been there for quite a while.

Position B:
There are seven rules that govern the placing of expressions in position B, and that's a little too much for this post, so look them up in a good grammar book, please.
In brief, the most common words to appear in position B are adverbs of indefinite time: often, usually, always, never, ever, seldom etc. Words like also, again, now and many adverbs ending in ly can be placed in this position:

I have never been there.
He also likes our proposal.
I slowly realized what he had done.

Position C:
All manner of expressions can be placed at the end of a clause. The word empty helps you remember the right order: manner, place, time. If there are two expressions of place or time, the smaller place or the more exact time comes first:

He sang beautifully on his balcony at nine last night.

In your native language and mine, word order is much freer. In fact, I can put the words spring has come again in any order in Finnish and the meaning remains the same. Some alternatives are poetic and unusual, but they are all correct. In English, if you change the word order, you have a question: Has spring come again? Asking questions is not that easy in Hungarian, I assume.

Cheers
CB

"We're both foreigners, right?"

It depends on who you consider a native. Emotion: smile The non-native speakers are speaking a foreign language: English.

foreigner: a person from outside one's community.

the word arouses negative feelings in me: discrimination.

thanks for the adverb position info.

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<the word arouses negative feelings in me: discrimination.>

It certainly has that semantic prosody for many people.
Inchoateknowledge "We're both foreigners, right?"

It depends on who you consider a native. Emotion: smile The non-native speakers are speaking a foreign language: English.

foreigner: a person from outside one's community.

the word arouses negative feelings in me: discrimination.

thanks for the adverb position info.

I know the word is derogatory. I used it on purpose. As a matter of fact, there is no neutral word in English. Alien doesn't sound very good either. We're not Martians!

Cheers
CB
InchoateknowledgeI have no other option but to give inyour powerful argument. Emotion: smile
I think you need a to here:

I have no other option but to give in toyour powerful argument. Emotion: smile

The Way We Live Now: 4-4-99 -- Questions for John Ashbery; A Child in Time

... resisted the pressure to give in to your critics?
Site Hint: Check out our list of pronunciation videos.
Marius Hancu
InchoateknowledgeI have no other option but to give inyour powerful argument. Emotion: smile
I think you need a to here:

I have no other option but to give in toyour powerful argument. Emotion: smile

The Way We Live Now: 4-4-99 -- Questions for John Ashbery; A Child in Time

... resisted the pressure to give in to your critics?

Hi

Yes, thanks
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