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We have to raise the necessary capital = correct sentence

We have an adverb phrase we want to integrate into the above sentence:

before the end of the month = when

Before means at or during a time earlier than (the the end of this month)



So, our problem now has been narrowed down to whether we can insert the phrase in the sentence, in the above place.

We have to raise the necessary capital (before the end of the month) = at a time before the end of the month = correct sentence

We have (before the end of the month) to raise the necessary capital = by the same token, I think it is correct.


Question: what is wrong with my reasoning?
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Comments  (Page 3) 
Back to the question of "before" and "until". If you must do something at a point in time before the end of the month, you have time available, lasting until the end of the month, to do it. Before answers the question when?. Until answers the question how long?
When must it be done? Before (or by) the end of the month.
How much time do we have? Until the end of the month.
Good point.
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J LewisBack to the question of "before" and "until". If you must do something at a point in time before the end of the month, you have time available, lasting until the end of the month, to do it. Before answers the question when?. Until answers the question how long?
When must it be done? Before (or by) the end of the month.
How much time do we have? Until the end of the month.

hi Lewis,

I am fully aware of this.

before = any one point in time that is not later than what is specified.
until = period of time, the beginning of which we may not know, and whose end is specified.

I have before the end of month to finish sg = syntax error -- I can not possess before the end of month (to finish sg),
By the same token, I can not possess until the end of month.
why still
'I have until the end of month to finish sg' is correct?
I have 4 hours to finish -- I can possess four hours, OK.
J LewisBack to the question of "before" and "until". If you must do something at a point in time before the end of the month, you have time available, lasting until the end of the month, to do it. Before answers the question when?. Until answers the question how long?
When must it be done? Before (or by) the end of the month.
How much time do we have? Until the end of the month.

hi Lewis,

I am fully aware of this.

before = any one point in time that is not later than what is specified.
until = period of time, the beginning of which we may not know, and whose end is specified.

I have before the end of month to finish sg = syntax error -- I can not possess before the end of month (to finish sg),
By the same token, I can not possess until the end of month.
why still
'I have until the end of month to finish sg' is correct?
I have 4 hours to finish -- I can possess four hours, OK.
<I have before the end of month to finish sg = syntax error -- I can not possess before the end of month (to finish sg), >

That's right, but you can:

"...have the time before the end of month to finish sg."
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
Space.
Directionality, Path: Marking source: from; Marking destination: to
Position, Location in Space: in front of, behind, above, under, in, ...

Time.
Directionality, Path: Marking source: since; Marking destination: until
Position, Location in Time: before, after, at the same time as, ...

under and to belong to word classes with different functionalities.
before and until belong to word classes with different functionalities.

A path in space describes the space from one region to another, an amount of space, so to speak.
A path in time describes the time from one moment to another, an amount of time, so to speak.

The source (and/or the destination) of any path can be expressed by a noun or by a location phrase.
It is not necessary to specify both boundaries of a path for the listener to understand what the path is.

It hangs above the desk.
It happened before the war.

It has been leaking from under the desk.
It has been happening since before the war.

The specification of path and position are often combined, especially with the spatial expressions, making the analysis more interesting!

We went into the hotel. = *We went to in the hotel.
It fell on the floor. = *It fell to on the floor.

In time expressions, this kind of combination rarely, if ever, occurs.
Whereas on can be taken to mean to on (See example above.), before cannot be taken to mean until before.

Still clear as mud, right? Emotion: smile

CJ