・after 10 years from now
(now)-------(10 years later)--->after--->
Now, about 'before 10 years from now', is it:

(a): (now)-----<---before<---(10 years later)


(b):<---before<---(10 years ago)----(now)

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We would only use "10 years ago". Use "before" and "after" with an action.

Before I graduated from college, I studied everyday. 5 years ago, I graduated from college.
It's (a), but both, as you probably already know, are rarely used in comparison to other equivalent expressions.

(In time expressions like this, "from now" is always construed as moving into the future.)
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Thank you, Jim.

So, how do you say (b) using 'before', without using 'ago'? Is it impossible?
That would be the rather awkward "before 10 years before now".
I was waiting to see if you would ask that question a little differently.

UNTIL-------> AGO Past action-------> NOW ----------> IN future action------------>

Taking my examples above, we can use the following:

I was a student there until 2000.

By using "until" instead of "before" we note a past action which was also completed in the past but more recently in the past. If you want to note when that action started, then use "from".

I was a student there from 1995 to 2000.
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Awkward, indeed.Emotion: smile

But thank you!

Final question, just to make sure.

About 'after 10 years from now', do I take it right?

Sorry, but right now I'm just interested in 'before/after'.

Then use "IN"

In 10 years,_________.

We don't use before and after. We use other words to match the meaning of what you are saying.
I didn't know about all this stuff.
Thank you CalifJim, for your valuable help.
I've googled and found this example:

# To be realistic, this proposal will not take place before five or seven years from now.

Then {after ten years from now} = {not before ten years from now}. Could I say so, if roughly?

Thank you, in advance !
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