We often see sentences starting with "Below are ...", e.g.

Below are the names of ....

I would like to know what the word "Below" serves as in terms of grammar. Is it grammatically correct? Can we say "Below" is a noun and the object of the sentence? Or is it a preposition or adverb (with the object and verb omitted)?

Thank you very much.
The names of gusets are listed belowe = below are the names of the guests

The guests list is below = Below is the list of guests.

It's an inverted form of the sentence and it's an adverb in my opinion.
Thanks, Goodman. I didn't think of that before.

Do you also consider this inversion?

A tree is there. <--> There is a tree.
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Do you also consider this inversion?

A tree is there. <--> There is a tree

I personally think it is. These 2 websites will clear all all doubts on inversions.



An inverted sentence is one in which the subject appears after the verb. This construction causes the subject to receive more emphasis.

An exception occurs when the verb is intransitive:

Down the street lived the man and his wife without anyone suspecting that they were really spies for a foreign power.

Because there's no object following the verb, the noun phrase after the verb "lived" can be decoded as subject without any problem.


Inversion after initial negatives:

  • Never will I do that again!
  • Rarely have I eaten better food.
  • Hardly ever does he come to class on time.
  • Not until a frog develops lungs does it leave the water and live on the land.
  • Not only was Mary Ann Shadd famous for helping escaped slaves, she was also the first African Canadian woman to establish a newspaper.
  • Hardly ever have there been so many choices for young people entering the work force as there are today..

  • Inversion after other structures:

    • So high is Mount Everest that climbers can take only a couple of steps per minute as they near the summit.
    • Off the coast of North Carolina lie the Barrier Islands, a popular summer resort area.
PterI would like to know what the word "Below" serves as in terms of grammar.
It's an adverb of place in an inverted sentence. The names of ... are (found) below.

Expressions of place are sometimes placed at the beginning of a sentence. A form of be is often used. there is usually implied, but omitted, though it can be included.

Across the lake (there) was a little cabin.
Above the dining table (there) was a large chandelier.
Farther along the path (there) were several large pine trees.

PterDo you also consider this inversion?

A tree is there. <--> There is a tree.
There are two forms of there: stressed and unstressed. Only the stressed form means "in that place". If both forms are stressed, then this is certainly inversion.

A tree is there. There is a tree. (possibly even pointing to the tree)

However, the unstressed form, which only calls attention to the existence of whatever is mentioned, is only used before the verb, and this form is almost never used without an adverbial expression. Thus, whereas There is a tree is unidiomatic with unstressed there, you can have There is a tree in front of my house.

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Thanks, Goodman. Thanks, CJ. You cleared all my doubts.

I also noticed the problem of "There is a tree" after I made it up arbitrarily. Without the stress and the pointing, it is really unidiomatic. I'm often amazed by CJ's ability to turn an unidiomatic sentence into one that makes sense by adding the necessary context and stress!