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Central Park was set in a rectangular site covering over 800 acres in the middle of Manhattan Island. By the nineteenth century, the original forest was long gone.

(Hi! What does "by" mean in this context? Does it mean "before", or "during" ?)

The area had been used as a common pasture for farm animals, but eventually it deteriorated into a kind of urban wasteland, dotted with garbage dumps.

(What is the meaning of "common" in this sentence? Should I get it as "shared", or "ordinary" ? I just found several definitions for "common" in the dictionary, so... I am not sure that which one is better for this case. What is your opinion? Thank you very much for your help. )

Olmsted and Vaux transformed this wasteland into something like its original appearance, with rolling hills, grassy meadows, and woody thickets with thousands of trees. ... ...
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Boston Common - a shared area - for public use.

"By" is hard to define, at least for me. By the time I get to Phoenix, she'll be risin'. (And I'll be long gone.)
Comments  
AvangiBoston Common - a shared area - for public use.

"By" is hard to define, at least for me. By the time I get to Phoenix, she'll be risin'. (And I'll be long gone.)


Hi, Avangi,

Thanks for your reply! I get it now!