If you found a new gadget, you might ask the others about its name. It can be a musical instrument, a piece of computer hardware or an accessory to your mobile phone.

(1) How do you call this?

(2) How do you called this?

Which is the correct one in this case? I find a bit uncomfortable to use 'called' here. It is a past tense. So the first sentence should pass the test. Your thoughts, please.

Of course, you could say what is the name of this.

My question is on using the word 'call' in this context.
I would say "what do you call this?" or "what is this called?" It doesn't really carry the sense of a past tense -- if you wanted to put it in the past, you could say "what WAS this called in the 18th century?" Rather, the "called" construction is passive voice - "we call this a telephone. (active) It is called a telephone. (Passive)
The important thing is that we would begin the question with "what," not "how".
Let me just add that "do", "does" or "did" with a past tense verb in the same clause is impossible. The auxiliary "do", "does", or "did" carries the tense marker and the bare infinitive form is the only possibility for the main verb in such cases.

*What do you called it?
*What did you called it?
What do you call it?
What did you call it?

*What do you heard?
*What did you heard?
What do you hear?
What did you hear?

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Thanks khoff
So it has the passive form. I couldn't figure it out.

It is not correct to say ' What do you called this'.

It should be 'What do you call this' .

Look at the following now:

What is this called?
This is called a router.

There are routers in the room where all the servers and other peripherals are kept. Someone could ask the above question.

So one of the correct answers should be 'This is called a router'.

Is the above answer too falls into the passive type?
Right - you can say "what do you call this?" OR "What is this called? but NOT "What do you called this?"

"This is called a router" is correct, and it is in the passive voice. (y)
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 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
Thanks, Jim - this is exactly where my signature disclaimer comes in handy!

Is it correct to say, "This is what you called .... (referring to something)"

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We called it holiday