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Hello, I am trying to enter graduate school and have to submit a research proposal; I have been through several drafts over the past few months but always get the feeling my paper writing does 'flow'. Can anyone read and give me suggestions?


Graduate School Research Proposal : The Relationship Between Resistance Training and Antioxidant Capacity in Women With Anemia.


Hello, I am applying to Graduate School and have been working on my research proposal. I'm pursuing a masters of sports science, and hope someone could check over my draft proposal. I do not have a heavy science background, and feel that my proposal does not flow. I am looking for suggestions and assistance because I am sure there are several grammar mistakes.
I would really appreciate if anybody can help me with my proposal, any suggestion will be a great help!

Background:
Oxidative stress is a phenomenon described by the imbalance between the production of the free radicals oxygen and nitrogen reactive species (ROS / RNS), and the antioxidant defense system which neutralizes them. Oxidation produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes peroxidation, enzyme inhibition and can cause genetic or cellular damage.[1] Systematic oxidative stress has been speculated to be a pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes, cataracts, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular conditions. Therefore further study into understanding how to reduce, inhibit, or prevent oxidative stress, can impede or delay the onset of a variety of harmful conditions.

The health benefits of exercise are well documented; and while some studies suggest that vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress, others indicate that regular exercise can decrease oxidative stress, improve metabolic status, insulin sensitivity, and reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the mechanisms of ROS /RNS formation during exercise will be useful for healthy promotion of exercises for adults, the elderly, as well as young people.

Relationship between resistance training and antioxidant capacity in women with anemia.

Currently in Japan, important social situations are the declining birthrates and an aging society. Social interest in the welfare of elderly citizens is a critically important topic of conversation. Elderly individuals, those who make up the population 65 years or older; often experience a loss of muscle, reduction in strength, flexibility, adaptability and reduced functional capacity. Being able to cope with daily activities is important for elderly individuals so that they may maintain their quality of life.

Current estimations state that half of Japan's population will be over the age of 65 in 2050, the socio-economical effects of such a dynamic population shift will certainly affect all industries, especially medical care. With Japan's unique population demographic, Japan could serve as an ideal model of an aging society to which future countries may use as a reference if facing similar trends. Thus, it is critical for new avenues of health specific research to be expounded upon.

Anemia has a widespread presence in the elderly population, the number of adults with anemia increases in number with the advancement of age. Anemia cases by number increases in people above the age of 50, to almost 20% of people ages 85 and over.[2] [3] Anemia is suggested as an risk factor for health decline among the elderly and increases of the risk of mortality, loss of cognitive function, dementia, and risk of bone fracture.[4]
The primary pathology of Anemia is a low red blood cell count or hemoglobin. The transportation of respiratory gasses is the primary role of red blood cells. The importance of this process is well illustrated by Anemia, where as the decreased hemoglobin can decrease exercise performance contrary to the increase cardiac output. There has been an association with expanded blood volume with physical exercise. [5] This study suggests that individuals who perform regular physical activity can exhibit 20-25% larger blood volume than those of sedentary individuals. Implications of such an expansion in blood volume can be inferred to additionally contribute to overall protection against health risks, particularly in elderly populations. For Anemia which reduces the red blood cell count, physical activity which leads to a production and increase in net hemoglobin would be beneficial.
It has been documented that increased fitness activity may reduce disease risks, and although it has been shown that exercise training has a beneficial impact on cardiometabolic risk markers. Some studies have shown that exercise can lead to protective affects against oxidative stress, and that even resistance training may illicit similar effects.[6] Therefore resistance training could prove to be an useful medium to improve not only muscular strength but also for increasing a person's antioxidant capacity by the increase in ROS and RNS production.

Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on women and/or different types of exercise training, such as in water. Water offers a unique exercise medium in which reduced gravity conditions decrease the impact force on joints and where the water itself creates resistance to movement. Essentially, water exercise can be seen as a low-impact physical exercise that can protect individuals from injury. Potential effects of anemia can range from feeling tired, becoming easily fatigued, appearing pale, feeling a fast or racing heart, shortness of breath, and or worsening heart problems. Aquatic exercise has been shown to aid improving muscular performance, and overall fitness and endurance, historically in people with traditionally low levels of physical fitness such as overweight individuals, elderly individuals, and individuals with arthritis, knee disorders, or disabilities. With possible anemic side effects or co-morbidities; aquatic exercise activity can prove beneficial in getting the individuals to become physically active without the normal risks of land based exercise. Studies have shown that aquatic aerobic training such as water running can evoke fitness improvements similar to that of land-based training; but the results of aquatic resistance training methods, specifically those in elderly individual have been limited and are still largely unknown. Exercise based cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to improve endothelial function, and reduce cardiac mortality, thus it may be feasible to assume that aquatic training may illicit similar effects in addition to increasing total red blood cell count. The potential set of information gained from this study can help form a basis of how neuromuscular function is affected by aquatic resistance training and also provide a framework for progressive hydrotherapy or aquatic resistance training programs in the future.

Purpose
To understand the relationship between aquatic resistance training and antioxidant capacity in women with anemia.

In this study, we aim to understand the effects of aquatic resistance training; this could lead to potential application in new areas of exercise research and health promotion. Many elderly people wish to remain healthy and increase their strength but may be wary to engage in direct exercise, do not have ample free time, and or are not aware of effective resources enabling them to safely resistance train. Aquatic resistance training's appeal is that it is easier and much safer that traditional resistance training, to which I believe would allow for a marketable community health program. With anemia rates increasing in the older population and Japan's aging society, having knowledge of an effective training program to reduce the health risks of anemic women would be very beneficial to combating chronic community diseases.

To evaluate the effects of aquatic resistance training on antioxidant capacity in a reali life setting, I propose a randomized selection of women to participate engaging in weekly aquatic resistance training sessions. (Men will be excluded in the study to avoid difference in sex-specific hormonal states and sex-specific hormonal responses to physical exercise.)
Participants would be asked to participate in an 14 week supervised aquatic resistance training program, exercising twice a week. The study would have 8 weeks of aquatic resistance training, 4 individual weeks of before and an after data collection, and 2 weeks of exercise instruction for exercising participants. The study would consist of a control group and an active group, the control group will be asked to maintain their daily activities during the duration of the two mot study. I propose a series of total body aquatic exercises using a variety of aquatic and exercise devices to increase drag force. Exercises would be set of a rhythmic cadence so that all participants do the same number of exercise reps. Having all participants exercising the same way should trying to equalize the intensity for all participants, individual adjustments for cadence may be made for individual exercises .
Volume and intensity and planned to be increased periodically throughout the duration of the study.

First all participants would initially have their physiological parametric data recorded for before and after session comparison
Next the participants, who are in the exercising groups, would join and introductory lesson into aquatic resistance exercises while participants are correctly instructed on how to perform all exercises; I would not expect participants to know any of the planned exercise.

Exercises used within the aquatic resistance training would be simple isolated body group exercises. For the most effective results, a beats per minute or metronome device would be used (in order to ensure all participants try to reach the same level of exerted exercise).

The Aquatic resistance exercises would be:
Lower Body:Single leg knee extensionWater kicking
Upper Body:Horizontal shoulder adductionVertical shoulder adductionElbow flexion extensionDumbbell chest extension
Core:Frontal top crunchFrontal low crunchPendulums (Forwards/Backwards)Pendulums (Sideways)

Aquatic training session's protocol:
Small group sessions - (small group sessions would be more ideal for instruction)
Sessions starting with a 5 - 8 minute warm up session. Aqua Jogging and stretching exercises for muscles.
Training session: 30 - 45 minute resistance training. Training sessions consisting of four primary exercises.
Cool-down session: 5 minute cool-down session.
* Volume and intensity are planned to be increased periodically throughout the duration of the study. The duration of sessions and sets/reps of each activity are planned to be increased as the participants become more acclimated with the exercises. This should prove beneficial and continually challenge the participants in regards to the increased endurance they will likely obtain throughout the training sessions.

Control group individuals: To have a comparable set of data, a separate set of participants will be asked to participate in the study but will not take part in the training sessions; participants will be asked to engage in their normal daily routine thought the duration of the study.

Activity journals will be given to all participants and they will be asked to log their daily exercise activity throughout the study.
Clinical metrics: the cardio protective effects of aquatic resistance training on some oxidative stress markers require a variety of metrics to measure the effectiveness of the exercises which are planned to be used.

Clinical data to be collected

Anthropometric dataWeight, height, Age, (self described ability)

Waist circumference, Hip circumference
Body Fat percentage
Blood samplesBlood plasma samples are planned to be taken before and after the initial assessment of Advanced oxidation protein products:
lipid hydroperoxide
glutathione peroxidase
catalase
lactate dehydrogenase,

Hematocrit (Hemoglobin blood test)
derivatives reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP)
-To measure antioxidant capacity
VO2max-estimation of the maximum consumed oxygen. VO2max is one of the best predictors for cardio-respiratory endurance and aerobic preparation.
via- Indirect estimation

Submaximal performance test-estimation of the maximum consumed oxygen. VO2max is one of the best predictors for cardio-respiratory endurance and aerobic preparation.
tested via Indirect estimation

Submaximal performance test ( strength)Upper-limb strength Rep test, lower limb strength rep test, abdominal strength rep test,
Daily activity logs log of activity from participants to better understand their daily exercise usage.

Reference
1: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10688856
2: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572827 /
3: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17601361
4: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775683 /
5: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b704/533e16d5655f7bbf418b728ffce7ee61e282.pdf
6: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20802287

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