„ Sometimes we hear reasoned arguments that oppose a view to which we are emotionally committed; sometimes we hear a passionate plea for a view we have good reason to reject.

Bearing this in Mind, discuss the importance of reason and emotion in distinguishing between Belief and knowledge. “

It is the way how people live, and the values of the situation they are living which refers back to the genuine difficulty of forming a Judgment. Serious moral conflicts between something clearly bad and something known to be good can be supposed by dogmatism. In which all of these uncertainties and clearness lies wholly in the will of the one choosing.1

An act done out of a certain emotion is the same kind of act done for a reason. The way of knowledge ones recieved and the way it had affected the way of reasoning the acts done is compared to emotions and feelings. Emotions explain the desire for something and the reason is the emotion in a way that the emotion which includes some elements of belief. People are sometimes asked ‘what made u do it?’ and the answer for it may be ‘I was angry’ or ‘I was afraid’. But for the third person (objective) account might be ‘he had done it, because he believed he was afraid’. Even at this level plays the importance of the elements of belief a great Role.²

Motivating reasons but not grounding reasons are connected and clearly tied to the desire of the person. One has a reason in order to do something if there is something to be gained from doing it, and to think to have a reason can be only done if the one thinks that its worth to do it gain something by doing it. And in order to have a reason to do something must the one believe in it. The belief produces the desire that ones need when this act is rationally motivated. And to be motivated then it is reflected of seeing something as a reason, in which the one must believe of a worth achievement connected to the action. A product of belief is the pleasure a person can get from an end that he already desired. And in such a case like that can be also explained by the emotion which explains the desire.³

On the other hand, some Philosophers distinguish between knowledge and belief, by assuming and identifying ‘which is which’. People do believe but they do not know if their belief is true or not, they may not even be sure if what they know or what they do believe in is true. They cannot be accurate in assuring of the corrections of their classification. And to entertain the doubt as to whether the one truly believes what he claims to believe, or even whether to be sure that what he knows what he claim to know is true or not would not change. So in order to see and distinguish between Belief and knowledge we shall try to define these two words. So what is Belief and how can we define it, and what is the relationship between Belief and Knowledge? Belief is the knowledge one gets by conviction. It is a concept related to each individual. It is the inner thoughts or feelings inside each individual that gives him faith towards a specific thing, idea or someone[1]. And through this definition we can see the relationship between Belief and knowledge and how both of them depend on Individualism. It is through the way in which every individual the Information receives, and then the way he uses it in the real life.4

From another angle, it is seen as the doubt that all of this is such a basic human trait which makes all the differences between cultures or Individuals. Philosophers also suggest, that the process is meant to be susceptible to the error when the people take belief for knowledge or knowledge for belief, and that we always undertake this kind of second-order thought.

To employ the relationship between belief and knowledge in the real life, we will take a look at the Politics in the Middle East. As a Palestinian, I can say that it is clear to notice the relationship between Belief and Knowledge in everyday in our life. Even if we would like to distinguish between them, we can easily do that. In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, we can see that two people in that area claim it. For example, the Israelis say that it is their Land because they believe that Moses was there and his Temple is in Jerusalem. The Palestinians on the other hand, believe that that piece of Land belongs to them. As a result of their belief they cannot agree and sit down for a resolution. The conflicts and the reasons in the Middle East are only a result of their belief, regarding to what they know or to what they claim to know. They are expressing their emotions in a way to present their belief on the ground.

People hear always pleas from both sides, but for these two cultures it is different because they are living the situation. They are the ones who can decide whether the Judgment is true or not. But the way that these cultures live and the way of knowledge everyone receives differs between the outcoming decisions from both sides. The Israeli would hear some pleas from the Palestinians in which they have good reasons to reject and deny and vice versa. Or the Palestinians say something which is good argument and discussion that an Israeli would reject because he is emotionally related to the fact and situation.

These examples establish several points: that we cannot take knowledge in replacement of our beliefs. We should learn the difference between both of them, even though they are connected in a way or another. And if we look to a third person (objective) who judges the situation in the Middle East without living it, we might see that his judgment must refer to some statements that he heard, in which it won’t make his Judgment certain because it depends on his sources. We can see from this that even our knowledge has its limits. Even though we can see that most of what we claim and judge as knowledge may turn out to be only pure belief. The same as a Philosopher said “...the distance between knowledge and belief is not as wide as it is sometimes presented“[2].

A person must have belief in something if he/she asks for it, even if he didn’t ask for it, or if he denies that he believes, even though he still believes in something, because he believes that he does not believe. Also one must have faith in his/her beliefs’ correctness. Beliefs are correct, and in my opinion I would say a belief is a result of emotions that one builds for himself through his whole Life through the way he built his knowledge. A belief is the truth that one builds to him/herself. When one believes in something or someone he/she knows it is true for him/her and he is emotionally committed to it. For example, I can distinguish between my belief and my knowledge through bearing in my mind that when I hear something about Palestine then I can’t Judge it reasonably because I am emotionally related to it, even if what I heard is true. Nevertheless it is the same thing when I hear a plea from the Israelis about the conflicts and this whole confused situation, then I would directly deny it as a first answer, but when I return back and think about it reasonably then I may discuss it and try to make it false and reject it in a way of a reasonable Judgment.

So, distinguishing between belief and knowledge through emotions and reason is something that the people live everyday. It is the way that they are psychologically connected, and the way they express their feelings and actions. And as the Philosopher Gilbert Harman said, it is only a matter of „Reasoning, Meaning, and Mind“.

1 Reasoning, Meaning, and Mind „Gilbert Harmann“.

² Reasons and Values „E.J. Bond“.

³ Reasons and Values „E.J. Bond“.

4 The African Philosophy Reader “A P Roux, P H Coetzee“

[1] Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary

[2] The African Philosophy Reader “A P Roux, P H Coetzee“
Hi

I've highlighted the parts that need a second look. You have a bit of a problem with word order and the use of 'one'. Also make up your mind whether you will just you he and him or try to be inclusive him/her and be consistent through the essay. If you can find a way of being inclusive that is a little more stylish than him/her, that would be good. You should also avoid starting too many sentences with 'And'.

Sometimes we hear reasoned arguments that oppose a view to which we are emotionally committed; sometimes we hear a passionate plea for a view we have good reason to reject.

Bearing this in Mind, discuss the importance of reason and emotion in distinguishing between Belief and knowledge. “

It is the way how people live, and the values of the situation they are living which refers back to the genuine difficulty of forming a Judgment. Serious moral conflicts between something clearly bad and something known to be good can be supposed by dogmatism. In which all of these uncertainties and clearness lies wholly in the will of the one choosing.1

An act done out of a certain emotion is the same kind of act done for a reason. The way of knowledge ones recieved and the way it had affected the way of reasoning the acts done is compared to emotions and feelings. Emotions explain the desire for something and the reason is the emotion in a way that the emotion which includes some elements of belief. People are sometimes asked ‘what made u do it?’ and the answer for it may be ‘I was angry’ or ‘I was afraid’. But for the third person (objective) account might be ‘he had done it, because he believed he was afraid’. Even at this level plays the importance of the elements of belief a great Role.²

Motivating reasons but not grounding reasons are connected and clearly tied to the desire of the person. One has a reason in order to do something if there is something to be gained from doing it, and to think to have a reason can be only done if the one thinks that its worth to do it gain something by doing it. And in order to have a reason to do something must the one believe in it. The belief produces the desire that ones need when this act is rationally motivated. And to be motivated then it is reflected of seeing something as a reason, in which the one must believe of a worth achievement connected to the action. A product of belief is the pleasure a person can get from an end that he already desired. And in such a case like that can be also explained by the emotion which explains the desire.³

On the other hand, some Philosophers distinguish between knowledge and belief, by assuming and identifying ‘which is which’. People do believe but they do not know if their belief is true or not, they may not even be sure if what they know or what they do believe in is true. They cannot be accurate in assuring of the corrections of their classification. And to entertain the doubt as to whether the one truly believes what he claims to believe, or even whether to be sure that what he knows what he claim to know is true or not would not change. So in order to see and distinguish between Belief and knowledge we shall try to define these two words. So what is Belief and how can we define it, and what is the relationship between Belief and Knowledge? Belief is the knowledge one gets by conviction. It is a concept related to each individual. It is the inner thoughts or feelings inside each individual that gives him faith towards a specific thing, idea or someone[1]. And through this definition we can see the relationship between Belief and knowledge and how both of them depend on Individualism. It is through the way in which every individual the Information receives, and then the way he uses it in the real life.4

From another angle, it is seen as the doubt that all of this is such a basic human trait which makes all the differences between cultures or Individuals. Philosophers also suggest, that the process is meant to be susceptible to the error when the people take belief for knowledge or knowledge for belief, and that we always undertake this kind of second-order thought.

To employ the relationship between belief and knowledge in the real life, we will take a look at the Politics in the Middle East. As a Palestinian, I can say that it is clear to notice the relationship between Belief and Knowledge in everyday in our life. Even if we would like to distinguish between them, we can easily do that. In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, we can see that two people in that area claim it. For example, the Israelis say that it is their Land because they believe that Moses was there and his Temple is in Jerusalem. The Palestinians on the other hand, believe that that piece of Land belongs to them. As a result of their belief they cannot agree and sit down for a resolution. The conflicts and the reasons in the Middle East are only a result of their belief, regarding to what they know or to what they claim to know. They are expressing their emotions in a way to present their belief on the ground.

People hear always pleas from both sides, but for these two cultures it is different because they are living the situation. They are the ones who can decide whether the Judgment is true or not. But the way that these cultures live and the way of knowledge everyone receives differs between the outcoming decisions from both sides. The Israeli would hear some pleas from the Palestinians in which they have good reasons to reject and deny and vice versa. Or the Palestinians say something which is good argument and discussion that an Israeli would reject because he is emotionally related to the fact and situation.

These examples establish several points: that we cannot take knowledge in replacement of our beliefs. We should learn the difference between both of them, even though they are connected in a way or another. And if we look to a third person (objective) who judges the situation in the Middle East without living it, we might see that his judgment must refer to some statements that he heard, in which it won’t make his Judgment certain because it depends on his sources. We can see from this that even our knowledge has its limits. Even though we can see that most of what we claim and judge as knowledge may turn out to be only pure belief. The same as a Philosopher said “...the distance between knowledge and belief is not as wide as it is sometimes presented“[2].

A person must have belief in something if he/she asks for it, even if he didn’t ask for it, or if he denies that he believes, even though he still believes in something, because he believes that he does not believe. Also one must have faith in his/her beliefs’ correctness. Beliefs are correct, and in my opinion I would say a belief is a result of emotions that one builds for himself through his whole Life through the way he built his knowledge. A belief is the truth that one builds to him/herself. When one believes in something or someone he/she knows it is true for him/her and he is emotionally committed to it. For example, I can distinguish between my belief and my knowledge through bearing in my mind that when I hear something about Palestine then I can’t Judge it reasonably because I am emotionally related to it, even if what I heard is true. Nevertheless it is the same thing when I hear a plea from the Israelis about the conflicts and this whole confused situation, then I would directly deny it as a first answer, but when I return back and think about it reasonably then I may discuss it and try to make it false and reject it in a way of a reasonable Judgment.

So, distinguishing between belief and knowledge through emotions and reason is something that the people live everyday. It is the way that they are psychologically connected, and the way they express their feelings and actions. And as the Philosopher Gilbert Harman said, it is only a matter of „Reasoning, Meaning, and Mind“.
heey thanx a lot.... u said tht i need to have a second look at the essay or the sentences u have shaded... wt do u mean with it..?? wt shall I actually do?? cuz i looked at it and tried to rewrite it but the problem is tht i dont want to change the meaning of the sentences...

soo please another time can u explain more ?? I think the order of the words is bacuase of the German language in which we write the verb at the end and things like tht : )

thnx again for ur cooperation...thts really nice from u... : )
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Hi,

I've highlighted most of the errors for you so you can have a go at correcting the sentence. You don't have to change the meaning.
Obermeyer Case Questions

1. Define the key problem discussed in the case that Obermeyer is attempting to solve and what key areas of their business and market did they study?

Obermeyer is attempting to solve the key problem of “making supply meet demand”. Because of the variety and number of products being produced, it is more difficult for manufacturers and retailers to predict which of their goods will sell and to plan production and orders accordingly. Inaccurate forecasts are increasing making it so that unwanted goods are left to have to be marked down.

They Studied

- Deal with styles that had irregular demand.

- Hit manufacturing constraints during the peak ski-wear-production period.

- The pressure to reduce manufacturing costs

- Increase variety required Sport Obermeyer to develop a more difficult supply chain

- Limited supplier capacity

- Lead time

- Stock outs and markdowns

- Inaccurate Forecasting

- Early order

- Predict what people would buy

- Committee forecast

- Retailer began demanding earlier delivery

2. Explain each of the methods used by Obermeyer to gain increased market insight onto product demand and explain what the benefit was to the company?

Each of the methods used by Obermeyer to gain increased market insight onto product demand are the different production-scheduling systems such as quick-response

programs, just-in-time inventory systems, manufacturing resource planning, and the like.

- The products that are sold in the United States today may be manufactured in or other countries. Such a supply chain supported increased variety and enhance production efficiency but greatly increased lead times.

- The company slashed the time it took to process orders and compute raw-material requirements by introducing computerized systems to support those activities.

- Also, because lead times for obtaining raw materials proved difficult to shorten, the company began to predict what materials it would require and pre-position them in a warehouse in the . With materials in hand, Sport Obermeryer was able to begin manufacturing as soon as it received orders.

- As delivery due dates approached, the company turned to airfreight to expedite delivery from the Far East to its distribution center.

- By providing the company with valuable early information of the products, they successful persuading some of its most important retailer customers to places their orders earlier.

- Forecast would tend to be more accurate when the buying committee’s members had similar forecasts. The actual sales data showed that the variance in the individual forecasts was an almost perfect predictor of forecast accuracy.

- Sport Obermeyer use the “Risk-based production sequencing” strategy, which allows them to be as responsive to the market as possible in the areas where the payoffs are the greatest. With this strategy, they can fill nonreactive capacity with those styles for which demand forecasts are most likely to be accurate, and they can use their reactive capacity to devote on making as many of the unpredictable styles as possible.

- They can use the historical sales data to estimate how much stock out and markdown costs would drop as we increased the available amount of capacity committed in reaction to actual early demand information.

3. Explain the new supplier expectations of the relationship between Obermeyer and its suppliers. What were the changes and how did they benefit 1-Obermeyer, 2-the suppliers and 3-the end customers?

- Obermeyer tried to keep their raw materials and factory-production capacity undifferentiated as long as possible. Like the company would began to book factory capacity for the peak production periods well in advance but didn’t specify the exact styles to be manufactured until a later day. Sport Obermeyer would assume the risk of supplying the correct raw materials to the factories. In exchange, the factories allowed production commitments to be made later.

- Sport Obermeyer would redesign its product line to reduce the variety of zippers used. In this case, it helps the company reduced the number of zippers it requires more than fivefold and also cut down the lead-time.

- They also encourage the designers to use the same kinds of raw materials in their patterns. In this way, the company doesn’t have to work with five or six different shades. They also found out that the customers generally don’t notice minute differences in color, because they pay more attention to a garment’s overall appearance, quality of construction, and special features.

4. Explain postponement strategy in terms of Obermeyer and its supply chain, how does it work and what are the benefits to this or any other business. Provide and discuss an example of another company using this strategy and how it allows them to be successful.?

Obermeyer can deal with those styles that had unpredictable demand. The answer to doing this was realizing that the production capacity Sport Obermeyer uses to make ski coats in fact changes in character as the season progresses. Like early in the season, when the company has no orders, the capacity is nonreactive, as orders begin to filter in, then capacity becomes reactive. It is important to fill nonreactive capacity with those styles for which require forecasts are most likely to be accurate, so that reactive capacity can be devoted to making as many of the unpredictable styles as possible. It allows Obermeyer to be as responsive to the market as possible in the areas where the payoffs are the greatest.

One of the companies’s that my Dad used to work for used postponement strategy by keeping ahead with their product making. In the slow times they would work ahead and keep ahead. They did this because there were only 10 fulltime workers and it takes 4 days to start and completely finish a casket. So they would always keep ahead in production incase of last minute orders that would come in so they can keep their customers happy.
Palestine was occupied by Jewish on tow main wars with Belfor promise assistance in 1924,in 1948 jewish was occupied Palestine except Jerusalem and Gaza, Jerusalem involved in an anion with left bank called as tow banks, and Gaza involved in anion with Egypt, in 1967 jewish was completely occupied Palestine with a war called six days war.

Palestinian escape from there land twice related to many reasons, terrifying from wars, jewish doing in the war by burning villages and killing families like Dair Yassin killing, and Palestinian fear for there family. Palestinian left there homes and being refugees in other countries, many families immigrated to America and Europe, many organization started to give a hand for Palestinian refugees, built camps, gave food and water, started educational program for child, and guarantee health services for whom need it, Palestinian started to build life in that countries, sold or built new house take jobs in that countries to maintain good life for there families but still thinking for there origin land. Many countries gave a hand for Palestinian, Palestinian have nationality and have all rights in that country.

Palestinian struggle till now to built there state, in 1992 peace conference was organized under USA and Russia supervision, it’s the first time Palestinian and Israel sate at the same table solve there problems to live in peace with each other, in 1994 Yaser Arafat and Ishaq Rabin shaking each other to announce for the first peace agreement Gaza and Areeha first, Arafat return to his home and started to formulate government , many obstacles was faced Arafat, one of them the time schedule for performing the agreement.

Peace men was gone ( Arafat and Rabin) and Palestinian was struggle for building there state side to side with Israel state, each one want to live in peace no killing or escaping.
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