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Hi. Please look at these examples and tell me if I am correct.

1. This is a case in which the word 'that' is optional.

A xxx is a small fish that people eat and moves very fast in water.

2. This lis a case in which the word 'that' is not optional.

A large crowd that showed up in his show was very well-behaving.

If I am correct, can you tell me why that is so for the above two sentences?

Also, would you say the word 'that' is optional along with the word 'was'?

A huge crowd (that was?) having fun at the concert was mostly from out of town.
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You are focusing on that as a relative pronoun. The relative pronoun is required only if it serves as the subject of the relative clause.

... fish that people eat ... People eat that fish. fish is not the subject. people is the subject. that is optional.
... crowd that showed up ... The crowd showed up. crowd is the subject. that is required.

... crowd that was having fun ... = crowd having fun. Yes. This is called Whiz Deletion. It is the deletion of the relative pronoun and a form of to be. The term comes from wh -- the letters that most relative pronouns begin with -- and iz -- the pronunciation of the most used form of to be -- is.

CJ
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Thanks. Do you think this is a case of Whiz Deletion? I think what follows the words 'XXX Cereal' is an adjectival phrase.

Try XXX Cereal (that is) topped with dried fruit and peanut butter.

I think the above is different in structure with this. I think the participle here is part of a subordinate clause.

John went to take a test equipped with knowledge he has acquired during the past semester.
Hi. I have one more question, other than the one I just posted. Can we have cases for Whiz Deletion with the phrase "that is" or "that was", rather than the phrase "what was" or "what is"?

I think some can be good with both like this one:

This is the gift (that/which was) bought yesterday.
AnonymousDo you think this is a case of Whiz Deletion? I think what follows the words '*** Cereal' is an adjectival phrase.

Try *** Cereal (that is) topped with dried fruit and peanut butter.
Yes. It's Whiz Deletion.
AnonymousI think the above is different in structure with this. I think the participle here is part of a subordinate clause.

John went to take a test equipped with knowledge he has acquired during the past semester.
You are correct. This is not a case of a test that was equipped with knowledge!

CJ
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AnonymousHi. I have one more question, other than the one I just posted. Can we have cases for Whiz Deletion with the phrase "that is" or "that was", rather than the phrase "what was" or "what is"?

I think some can be good with both like this one:

This is the gift (that/which was) bought yesterday.

Yes. Don't you remember? The one we discussed first had that, not which. Deletion of "that is", "that was", etc. in that grammatical pattern is also called Whiz Deletion. Emotion: smile

CJ