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I've been to some countries in Europe, such as France and Germany.

In the above sentence, is the comma before [such as] obligatory, optional or redundant?
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I would say it's obligatory.
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I like to read books, such as novels and biographies.

In the above sentence, is the comma before [such as] obligatory, optional or redundant?
It's not the comma that's redundant.

I like to read novels and biographies.