Hi,

I came across quite a few compound nouns/adjectives in a video clip I watched recently.

I have some questions about them.(please bear in mind it is a bit long)

1. continuing education

ex) A new government report found almost half the adults in America take some form of continuing education.

Q1) Does "continuing" denote a purposive meaning like a washing machine.(a machine for washing) If no, what meaning does it have?

2. lifelong

ex) And then the third, it's just taking classes in an area of interest with an eye towards lifelong learning, career protection, frankly, and career advancement.

Q2) This is an example of compound adjectives whose components are noun+adjective(N+A), correct?

3. recession-proof

ex)

A: Now, when you're weighing this decision, I mean, how do you know if it's worth the cost?

B: Well, I think you have to work backward. So, if you are currently employed, you have to say, especially if you're older, how can I recession-proof my career?

Q3) Is this a typical use of "recession-proof"? I mean, isn't it normally used as an adjective?

Q3-1) Also, it's a combination of N+A, right?

4. tech-savvy

ex) 'Cause you can be sure, Russ, there is a 28-year-old down the hall, who is up on the latest trends in your industry and very tech-savvy.

Q4) Is this an N+A compound?

5. hard-hit

ex) And the Department of Labor also has a site called "Opportunity.gov", which if you're in construction, particularly hard-hit, 16 percent unemployment, you can literally type in the tools you know how to use, and it will show you listings that require that skill.

Q5) I'm not sure about this one. Is this a type of compound which have an adjective as first element and a past participle(passive use) as second element?

Q5-1) Overall, "hard-hit" is an adjective. Correct?

6. for-profit/for-credit

ex) A player like the University of Phoenix is a for-profit university.

ex) Because you can say, you know, I'm taking for-credit classes at, your, probably your community college's going to be the most affordable bet.

Q6) These two are a type of compound nouns that have a preposition as first element. Correct? (another example would be "after-effect")

I'd appreciate it if you could help me on this. Thanks.
1. continuing education

ex) A new government report found almost half the adults in America take some form of continuing education.

Q1) Does "continuing" denote a purposive meaning like a washing machine.(a machine for washing) If no, what meaning does it have?

Education for continuing? "Continuing" isn't concrete enough to make sense here the way "washing" does in "washing machine". I'd say it is much closer to being a simple modifier of 'education', i.e., education that continues. One continues one's education; thus, the education continues. Compare: A rolling stone gathers no moss. ~ A stone that is rolling ....

_______

2. lifelong

ex) And then the third, it's just taking classes in an area of interest with an eye towards lifelong learning, career protection, frankly, and career advancement.

Q2) This is an example of a compound adjective whose components are noun+adjective(N+A), correct?

I would say so. Yes. I think you could say that it's more or less promoted from adverb to adjective in parallel with the promotion of the verb learn to the gerund learning.

to learn your whole life long>> lifelong learning.

verb 'adverb' of time >> adjective gerund (~noun-like entity)

The 'adverb' is really a noun phrase, of course, but used as a modifier of a verb.

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3. recession-proof

ex)

A: Now, when you're weighing this decision, I mean, how do you know if it's worth the cost?

B: Well, I think you have to work backward. So, if you are currently employed, you have to say, especially if you're older, how can I recession-proof my career?

Q3) Is this a typical use of "recession-proof"? I mean, isn't it normally used as an adjective?

These compounds with -proof are used mostly as adjectives, but their use as verbs is not at all out the question: We need to water-proof the deck before the winter rains come.

Q3-1) Also, it's a combination of N+A, right? Yes.

_______

4. tech-savvy

ex) 'Cause you can be sure, Russ, there is a 28-year-old down the hall, who is up on the latest trends in your industry and very tech-savvy.

Q4) Is this an N+A compound? Yes. Literally, technology-knowledgeable.

_______

5. hard-hit

ex) And the Department of Labor also has a site called "Opportunity.gov", which if you're in construction, particularly hard-hit, 16 percent unemployment, you can literally type in the tools you know how to use, and it will show you listings that require that skill.

Q5) I'm not sure about this one. Is this a type of compound which we have an adjective as first element and a past participle(passive use) as second element? Adverb + participle.

Q5-1) Overall, "hard-hit" is an adjective. Correct? Yes. Of the past participle type.

_______

6. for-profit/for-credit

ex) A player like the University of Phoenix is a for-profit university.

ex) Because you can say, you know, I'm taking for-credit classes at, your, probably your community college's going to be the most affordable bet.

Q6) These two are a type of compound nouns that have a preposition as first element. Correct? (another example would be "after-effect")

Hmm. I don't know if I'd even classify them as compound nouns, even though the second component is a noun. They are prepositional phrases used as pre-modifiers, as if adjectives.

And I don't see "after-effect" as a member of the same class. That one seems different to me. The university is operated for profit, but an allergic reaction may be considered an after-effect of - an effect that comes after - taking a medication. (You can't say that the allergic reaction, which is the effect, happens after the effect in analogy with "The university is for profit".)

CJ
Thank you very much for your answers, CJ. I really appreciate your help.Emotion: smile
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
1. This seems roughly similar to "washing machine" (a machine for washing): education for continuing your education. In the US this can take many forms, for example: fully-accredited night college courses (the person has a full-time job during the day) at a university leading to a college degree, up to the Ph.D. level; fully-accredited online college courses leading to a college degree, up to the Ph.D. level; non-accredited courses at a university (or online) for "life-enrichment," not leading to a college degree; high-school-level courses or "life-enrichment" courses at a high school (or online) for people who didn't finish high-school; non-accredited courses leading to a non-accredited college degree; courses given by one's employer to increase one's knowledge and skill relating to his job; etc.

Note that in the US there is a general mission to have everybody get a college degree. Thus, the following people would be eagerly recruited by colleges, even Ivy League ones: elderly people, even up to their 90's; prison inmates; death-row inmates; mentally-handicapped people; high-school dropouts; junior high school dropouts; immigrants who can barely speak English; etc. There are more colleges and junior colleges in the US than anywhere else. If you added up all the institutions of higher learning in all the other countries in the world, they wouldn't even come close to equaling the number in the US.

2. Compound words can take many forms and have their origin in many different ways. Here it is an adj. (and possibly and adv. too) that apparently was made from a noun and adj.

3. "Recession-proof" can be used as a verb or adj. This is apparently made from a noun and a verb - "proof," I believe, is a verb in this sense, as when you proof (test) a gun for pressure. This is similar to the words water-proof, germ-proof, wind-proof, child-proof, etc.

4. This is apparently made from a noun and an adj.

5. "Hard-hit" is a verb: "...if you're in construction, an area that has been particularly hard-hit by the recession..." This is apparently made from an adv. (hard) and a verb (hit).

6. These apparently were originally prepositional phrases - for profit, for credit - that were so frequently used that they became separate words. "After effect" is apparently made form an adj. (after) and a noun (effect).
Thank you for your answers, Anon.