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Hello,

I am very confuse about the infinitive tense, such as without to , I had read a grammar
book which state never use to for such verb such as make, feel,see hear, eg as follow:
(I knew if we add to infront of all these verb, it make no sense ,It is all these verb are special verb, whenever I use them , I have to use present or present participle ), do you know of any other verb similar to the above which i should take note about, other then those auxiliary verb.

1)Made Ali stand outside (not stood) even though it is pass tense
2)I heard my techer call/ calling me (not called) "
3)I saw peter do/doing it (not did) "
4)Just now, I heard him cry/crying (not cried) "
5)I felt an ant crawl/crawling onto my hand (not crawled) "
6)Sharon saw the woman open the bag and take the money out ( not opened and took)

(if i want to continue the following sentence for no.6) what tense should i use , pass or present)

Can I say the following:

Sharon saw the woman open the bag and take the money out,she was ashamed that she looked down upon her.

Another confuse tense is subjunctive verb.eg as follow:

1)I knew I was in trouble immediately, ,what do you want to tell me?" I asked.
"I think it's time we went on a diet,he said.
(I am confused especially this which make no sense to me howcome is I think and not I thought, seem everything is on the past tense.)

2)Is that true, whatever thing after I wish is past tense eg.

I wish I had finished my work (alway must use with had ,is it ?)
eg.I wish I finished my work (according to the book this is wrong)

3)I hope I married him or
I hope I can marry him.
(I had read book saying I hope can be at present tense , but my friend told me otherwise therefore I am confused now.)

Can you give me more examples of the above , because I am very confuse howcome sometime the sentence which is all past tense first must use present tense subsequently or vice versa.

According to what I had read , they called this subjunctive verb, which are verb that caused doubt or prediction then we use past tense, but there is limited eg.

last question: what is perception verb.?

I greatly appreciate this website and all of them for spending your precious time, cracking your head thinking the eg to assist me. This website has indeed help me alot.

Once again, I would like to say thank you so much for your great effort and kind assistance.

Best regards

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Hello Happy

In your sentence 6, your version is correct:

'Sharon saw the woman open the bag and take the money out.'

The list of verbs that use this structure [object + 'bare' infinitive] is small. The most common would be:

1. 'Coercive' verbs: make, have, let.
2. Verbs of perception: see, hear, feel, watch.
3. Verbs that can take either [object + bare infinitive] or [object + to-infinitive]: help, know.

e.g.
(A) 'George made him wait.'
(B) 'John saw Peter leave.'
(C) 'Peter helped him cook' or 'Peter helped him to cook'.

A slightly longer list of verbs uses the structure [object + participle], including:

4. 'Coercive' verbs: have, get.
5. Verbs of perception: see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe.
6. Verbs of encounter: find, discover, leave, catch, meet.

e.g.
(D) 'I had him painting the fence last week.'
(E) 'John saw him leaving.'
(F) 'Peter found him lying on the floor.'

As you can see, several verbs appear in both lists. The difference between the
structures can be seen if we compare(B) with (E). In (B), John saw the whole act of
leaving. But in (E), we don't know how much of the act of leaving John saw.

Another example: in your sentence 6, Sharon saw the whole of the action: both
the opening of the bag, and the taking out of the money. But if you had written:

'Sharon saw the woman opening the bag and taking the money out.'

we would not know how much of the 'opening' and the 'taking out' she had
seen.

The two different structures ('object + infinitive' and 'object and participle') allow
us to make this distinction.

I'll come back later to answer the rest of your questions.

MrP
Comments  
Hello Mr Pedantic,

Thank you so much for your excellent examples, and also thanks for spending your precious time cracking your head thinking so many examples to help me to understand the above ,I get a clearer picture now.

Best regards
Irene Tan