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The highest temperature of 39 degrees was recorded today. I am afraid I don't understand the usage of "of" in the sentence. It would be grateful if you could explain me.

Also, If there is a noun before or after "of", which one (a, an or the) would be used before the noun. Here is the example:

A number of "the" flies fly in or A number of flies fly in. Which one is correct?

"The" total number of A increased by 27% or "A" total number of A is increased by 27%.

It would be great if you could show me any online reference by any chance, please.

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TakeitEasyThe highest temperature of 39 degrees was recorded today. I am afraid I don't understand the usage of "of" in the sentence. It I would be grateful if you could explain me. it for me.

the highest temperature of 39 degrees ...
~ the highest temperature, which was 39 degrees, ...
~ the highest temperature, namely, 39 degrees, ...

TakeitEasyA number of flies

This is the correct one.

TakeitEasyThe total number of A increased by 27%.

This is the correct one.

TakeitEasyonline reference

Google

English grammar partitives

Here's a pretty good one:

https://www.thoughtco.com/partitive-in-grammar-1691587

CJ