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https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/89892/clause-vs-phrase-vs-sentence/89945#89945

Any clause is also a sentence. The difference between clause and sentence makes sense when a complement is specified by means of other clause: "I know he likes me". "He likes me" is a clause working as a direct object of the main sentence.To conclude, "He likes me" is a clause and a sentence while "I know he likes me" is a sentence but not a clause.


Are we saying here that the sentence needs to have a complement (another clause) to be considered a sentence and not just a clause ?


But we can have for instance Dogs walk, people talk, dogs bark, Stop! and they are sentences.



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panda blue 483Are we saying here that the sentence needs to have a complement (another clause) to be considered a sentence and not just a clause ?

No. Some clauses contain complements, and some don't. This is not related to the topic of different types of sentences and clauses.

panda blue 483Any clause is also a sentence.

Not true. Dependent clauses are not sentences. For example: that Robert wants is a clause, but not a sentence, because it's a dependent clause. It can't stand alone. An independent clause standing alone is a sentence, however. For example, Larry is sleeping is an independent clause and can stand alone as a sentence.

panda blue 483Dogs walk, people talk, dogs bark

Yes, these independent clauses are sentences if that's what you're asking:

Dogs walk. / People talk. / Dogs bark.

Consisting only of subject and verb, these are about the shortest sentences possible.


Sentences may contain a combination of independent and dependent clauses, of course, as long as there is one independent clause.

This is the car that Robert wants.

The full independent clause is the whole sentence.
Embedded within that sentence there is also a dependent clause: that Robert wants.


panda blue 483I know he likes me" is a sentence but not a clause.

No. There is no such thing as a sentence that is not a clause or a sentence that does not contain at least one clause.

CJ

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panda blue 483Are we saying here that the sentence needs to have a complement (another clause) to be considered a sentence and not just a clause ?

No.

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Comments  

What about examples like He said/She Said.

He spoke. It was the first time in years.


They observed, as the car pulled into the drive.


Could you have:

It's over. He said, as her car pulled away from the drive.

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panda blue 483He spoke. It was the first time in years.

This is OK. I'm not sure what question you are asking about it.

panda blue 483They observed, as the car pulled into the drive.

If you mean "observed" in the sense of "made a comment", this is not possible. If you mean "observed" in the sense of "watched", it is rather awkward to read and may be better without the comma.

panda blue 483Could you have:
It's over. He said, as her car pulled away from the drive.

No.

If you mean "observed" in the sense of "made a comment", this is not possible.

Just a logical problem? As they observed doesn't make sense?


These examples usually come at the end of sentences, he observed.

Any specific term for these parts of the sentence that say he said, he observed?



panda blue 483he said. How does it differ from He died, He screamed, or short sentences.

Unlike "died", "screamed" etc., "said" cannot stand by itself as an intransitive verb. It needs additional information to show what was said. Normally this is either direct speech in quotes, e.g.:

"I'm too hot," he said.

or it is indirect speech:

He said (that) he was too hot.

panda blue 483I understand how it is used, he said.
I understand how it is used, he observed.

These are wrong. The content of what he said or observed should be in quotation marks.

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