+0

1. He fought back with all he could, battling for his life as the armies closed in on him, leaving him with limited options.

2. He fought back with all he could, battling for his life as the armies closed in on him, he was left with limited options.


Is 2 a comma splice ? Do we class the entire sentence after could as one complete clause ?



Why doesn't 2 work like 1 ? Living doesn't sound right in the second example ?

1. She became a recluse, living alone since the 1960's.

2. I prefer my own company, living alone since the 1960's

+1
panda blue 483

1. He fought back with all he could, battling for his life as the armies closed in on him, leaving him with limited options.

2. He fought back with all he could, battling for his life as the armies closed in on him, he was left with limited options.


Is 2 a comma splice ? Do we class the entire sentence after could as one complete clause ?

Yes. 2) has a comma splice. The participle clause in the middle could go with either the first or the last clause if you wanted to fix it (because both of those clauses have a finite verb, and the middle clause does not). The two solutions:

He fought back with all he could, battling for his life as the armies closed in on him. He was left with limited options.
He fought back with all he could. Battling for his life as the armies closed in on him, he was left with limited options.

The second fix sounds better to my ear.


panda blue 483

Why doesn't 2 work like 1 ? Living doesn't sound right in the second example ?

1. She became a recluse, living alone since the 1960's.

2. I prefer my own company, living alone since the 1960's

Neither of those is really wrong, but I think I prefer the so-called perfect participle (with having).

1. She became a recluse, having lived alone since the 1960's.
2. I prefer my own company, having lived alone since the 1960's.

CJ