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Hello,

How would you explain the usage of "using" in the sentence "crops are cultivated using natural fertilizers"?

It makes more sense to me if it is written with a "with" - the crops are cultivated with (without) using natural fertilizers. So does that mean in correct and formal writing there should be a "with/ without"?

I tried to consult some grammar books yet couldn't find out a satisfying answer so far. Is "using" here a participle, a preposition (like "spent time (in) training), or something else? Does it perform as an adverb or complement?

In Michael Swan, "She ran screaming out of the room." It says that the screaming acts as an adverb. But i don't see these two sentences are the same - "using natural fertilizer" is more like a modified clause to me.

Thanks for any possible answers!
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It makes more sense to me if it is written with a "with" - the crops are cultivated with (without) using natural fertilizers. So does that mean in correct and formal writing there should be a "with/ without"?-- No. 'With using' is wrong grammar in any register.

Is "using" here a participle, a preposition (like "spent time (in) training), or something else? Does it perform as an adverb or complement?-- It is a participle and the head of the non-finite clause acting as an adverbial.
Comments  
Anonymouscrops are cultivated using natural fertilizers
".....Using natural fertilizers" - The entire phrase modifies "the crops are cutivated" and "using" is a present participle used to construct the phrase. As you suggested "with" would in fact yield the similar meaning. However, "with natrural fertilizers" is a prepositional phrase, but still functions adverbially.
Anonymous" She ran screaming out of the room" It says that the screaming acts as an adverb.
This is correct.

She ran out of the room - this is a complete sentence by itself. When we have any condition which requires an answer with "when, where, and how", the answer then has the adverbial property.
How did she run out of the room ?- screaming.