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He started to walk again, dazed, overwhelmed by the closeness of his escape. He realised that he must have been following the rhino for a while and that they had both been equally surprised to find one another. When the rhino had eventually seen him, it had charged, but it had really only meant to get away.

I saw the above in my son's reading book- The Akimbo adventurers.

What is the grammatical form and function of "dazed, overwhelmed by..."?

What does it modify here and why do we need commas in that sentence?

Past participle clauses

Past participle clauses replace passive voice finite clauses:Shocked by the explosion, the people ran for shelter. (The people were shocked by the explosion and ran for shelter.)


Participle clauses | Grammaring

https://www.grammaring.com/participle-clauses

Is it a past participial clause? Is it the same as above?

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JigneshbharatiDoesn't Don't the non-finite clauses modify the subject (he)?

Those non-finite clauses are associated with the subject he, but there are many kinds of associations that words have with each other. Modification is just one such association.

Strictly speaking, grammatical modification is the use of words to identify something more precisely. In the story we already know exactly who "he" is, so "he" does not need to be modified. There is no "he who was dazed" and "he who was not dazed", so it's not as if we need this information in order to know which "he" the writer is referring to.

In this case the association is predication, in other words, saying something about "he". "dazed" predicates something of "he". It says something about "he". That's most often what participle clauses do: they say something more about the subject than the main clause has already said. That is, they predicate something of the subject. They are predications. (However, sometimes they do modify like relative clauses do.)

CJ

Comments  
JigneshbharatiHe started to walk again, dazed, overwhelmed by the closeness of his escape.
JigneshbharatiWhat is the grammatical form and function of "dazed, overwhelmed by..."?

I analyse it as verbs (past participles) functioning as predicators in the no-finite clauses (past-participial ones) dazed _____ and overwhelmed by the closeness of his escape respectively. In the clause dazed _____, the gap "______" stands for the understood modifier "by the closeness of his escape".Both past-participials have their active counterparts: the closeness of his escape dazed him and the closeness of his escape overwhelmed him.

JigneshbharatiWhat does it modify here and why do we need commas in that sentence?

Both past-participial clauses are modifiers (adjuncts) in the clause structure He started to walk again dazed, overwhelmed by the closeness of his escape.

I'm not sure that the comma after "again", separating the main clause and modifier "dazed", is needed, but the comma after "daze" separates both past-participials.

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Doesn't the non-finite clauses modify the subject (he)?

JigneshbharatiDoesn't the non-finite clauses modify the subject (he)?

You may say that the understood subject in both past-participials refers to He, i.e., [him having been] dazed by.../[him having been] overwhelmed by...

 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
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