Does the highlighted "deemed necessary" in the text below refer to "an element of self-love" or "all relationships"?


It is worth remembering that narcissism is not a straightforward concept in Freud’s writing. The narcissism we refer to in everyday life is a secondary formation that evolves as a defence against the loss of primary narcissism. Primary narcissism, which is bound up with infantile omnipotence, is expressed in auto-eroticism which involves the taking of a fragment of one’s own body, a zone or orifice, as a source of pleasure that revolves in an unbroken circuit around the body.9 The introduction of the outside world interrupts this circuit, creating a rift which prompts the developing ego to look outside itself for satisfaction. In classical accounts of narcissism, secondary narcissism is akin to a compensatory attempt to remake an unbroken circuit of satisfaction around the subject. Now while there is an element of self-love in all relationships that Freud deemed necessary, this secondary formation is, as we have seen in Lacan’s ‘The Mirror-Stage’, neurotic, dependent on the projection of an idealised self-image, which Freud calls the ego ideal and which for Lacan is founded on lack.


an element of self-love