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ACALCULOUS
CHOLECYSTITIS
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Acalculous cholecystitis i s an inflammatory disease of the gallbladder without evidence of gallstones or cystic duct obstruction it is a severe illness that is a complication of various other medical or surgical conditions. Duncan first recognized it in 1844 when a fatal case of acalculous cholecystitis complicating an incarcerated hernia was reported. The condition causes approximately 5-10% of all cases of acute cholecystitis and is usually associated with more serious morbidity and higher mortality rates than calculous cholecystitis. It is most commonly observed in the setting of very ill patients (eg, on mechanical ventilation, with sepsis or severe burn injuries, after severe trauma). In addition, acalculous cholecystitis is associated with a higher incidence of gangrene and perforation compared to calculous disease.
The usual finding on imaging studies is a distended acalculous gallbladder with thickened walls (>3-4 mm) with or without pericholecystic fluid. Acalculous cholecystitis can be observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although it is a late manifestation of this disease. Acalculous cholecystitis can also be found in patients on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), typically those on TPN for more than 3 months.