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Hi beloved teachers,

Would you kindly help me with the following sentences? I've put the confusions and questions, I have, in the brackets.

a). Increasing the vehicle license fee angered most California residents. [Here, the underlined part is a gerund phrase which is acting as the subject of the verb ‘angered’. And the word, which is in bold, is a gerund. Thus, ‘increasing’ is a gerund and ‘increasing the vehicle license fee’ is a gerund phrase in the sentence. Am I right about what I’ve said, teachers? But, my questions are about the words/group of words associated with the gerund – increasing. What should I call the words/group of words associated with it, teachers?]

b). Arnold Schwarzenegger appealed to California voters by promising to rescind the vehicle license fee.
[In this sentence, the gerund phrase is underlined which is being preceded by the preposition ‘by’ and which is acting as the object of the preposition ‘by’. The gerund (promising) is in bold.]

c). Many people would recommend delaying the legal age for driving.
[Here, the gerund phrase is ‘delaying the legal age for driving’ which is acting as the direct object of the verb ‘recommend’. But If we were to split this gerund phrase by telling the name of every phase/unit used, how would we do that, teachers? ]
Okay let me try to do that first, and then, I would like to see your opinions on that.

(Dear teachers, my confusion and questions are…)
The gerund phrase, as I’ve already mentioned, is ‘delaying the legal age for driving’. In this phrase, the gerund is ‘delaying’. Am I right, teachers? But, what about the other words associated to it? I mean, what should I call them? Do we have two gerunds in this phrase, one is ‘delaying’ and the other is ‘driving’?

d). If you have vision problems, you shouldn’t risk driving at night.
[The gerund phrase is ‘driving at night’ which is acting as the object of the verb ‘risk’. The gerund is ‘driving’ which is the subject of the prepositional phrase ‘at night’( Here, is ‘what I am saying’ correct, teachers?). Could we call the part (at night) associated with the gerund (driving) in the gerund phrase (driving at night) ‘a prepositional phrase’ or ‘the object of the gerund ‘driving’?]

Thank you.
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Laboriousa). Increasing the vehicle license fee angered most California residents. [Here, the underlined part is a gerund phrase which is acting as the subject of the verb ‘angered’. And the word, which is in bold, is a gerund. Thus, ‘increasing’ is a gerund and ‘increasing the vehicle license fee’ is a gerund phrase in the sentence. Am I right about what I’ve said, teachers? But, my questions are about the words/group of words associated with the gerund – increasing. What should I call the words/group of words associated with it, teachers?]
Thus, ‘increasing’ is a gerund and ‘increasing the vehicle license fee’ is a gerund phrase in the sentence. Yes. Note that some grammarians call this a reduced clause because it has a non-finite verb. A phrase, such as a propositional phrase or a noun phrase, has no verb.

But, my questions are about the words/group of words associated with the gerund – increasing. What should I call the words/group of words associated with it, teachers?]
Because the gerund is a non-finite verb, it has the properties of a verb - it can have a subject, direct and indirect objects, and adverb modifiers. "the vehicle license fee" is a noun phrase which functions as the object of the non-finite verb "increasing". If you change the non-finite verb to a finite verb form, then it is clear.
The government was increasing the vehicle license fee; that angered the people.
Laboriousc). Many people would recommend delaying the legal age for driving. [Here, the gerund phrase is ‘delaying the legal age for driving’ which is acting as the direct object of the verb ‘recommend’. But If we were to split this gerund phrase by telling the name of every phase/unit used, how would we do that, teachers? ]Okay let me try to do that first, and then, I would like to see your opinions on that.(Dear teachers, my confusion and questions are…)The gerund phrase, as I’ve already mentioned, is ‘delaying the legal age for driving’. In this phrase, the gerund is ‘delaying’. Am I right, teachers? But, what about the other words associated to it? I mean, what should I call them? Do we have two gerunds in this phrase, one is ‘delaying’ and the other is ‘driving’?
[Many people] (subject)
[would recommend] (main verb)
delaying the legal age for driving. (direct object)

[delaying] non-finite verb
[the legal age] (direct object)
[for driving] (prepositional phrase, modifying "age")

[for driving] for = preposition
driving = gerund, object of preposition.
Laboriousd). If you have vision problems, you shouldn’t risk driving at night. [The gerund phrase is ‘driving at night’ which is acting as the object of the verb ‘risk’. The gerund is ‘driving’ which is the subject of the prepositional phrase ‘at night’( Here, is ‘what I am saying’ correct, teachers?). Could we call the part (at night) associated with the gerund (driving) in the gerund phrase (driving at night) ‘a prepositional phrase’ or ‘the object of the gerund ‘driving’?]
The gerund is ‘driving’ which is the subject of the prepositional phrase ‘at night’( Here, is ‘what I am saying’ correct, teachers?).
No. "at night" is a prepositional phrase which is an adverb, modifying the gerund "driving". It answers the question "when?", so it is an adverb of time.
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Thank you very much, Alphecca Stars, for clarifying every doubt I had.

You really deserve to be called a teacher. The way you explain things is awesome! Emotion: smile

By the way, Does it (you really deserve to be called a teacher) sound natural to your native ears? Would it be correct if I said 'you really deserve being called a teacher'?

Thanks to you once again!
LaboriousBy the way, Does it (you really deserve to be called a teacher) sound natural to your native ears?
Yes, perfectly natural.
LaboriousWould it be correct if I said 'you really deserve being called a teacher'?
Yes.
AlpheccaStars[Many people] (subject)[would recommend] (main verb) delaying the legal age for driving. (direct object) [delaying] non-finite verb[the legal age] (direct object)[for driving] (prepositional phrase, modifying "age")[for driving] for = prepositiondriving = gerund, object of preposition.
Dear ma'am, firstly, I'd like to say thanks to you for all the helpful information you have given. But I think I have one more and probably last question to you.

Here, you referred to 'delaying' as a non-finite verb and then 'driving' as a gerund. Does this mean that there is a difference between saying 'non-finite verb' and saying 'gerund'? Are they (the terms 'non-finite verb' and 'gerund') same? Or is there any difference? Could we call an 'ing' form a gerund as well as a non-finite verb?

Thank you.
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A non-finite verb is a verb form that does not have person, number, tense and other characteristics of a fully inflected verb..


There are three non-finite verb forms in English: the present participle, the past participle and the infinitive.

A gerund is the present participle form that functions as a noun in a sentence. So a gerund is a special case of the present participle, which is one type of non-finite verb.


The term "non-finite" is relatively recent. When I learned grammar, these forms were called "verbals." You still might see this word used in textbooks.

Emotion: roseEmotion: smile