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Hello every body.

Could you please help me to memorize these words better? I think These words have the same origin but de and re make the same root change into words whose meanings are not as you expect .

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These are not closely related words.

Designation is related to design, to mark or point out,

https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=design

Resignation is related to resign, a different word meaning to quit or surrender.

Both are derived from the verb "sign" but the relation is not very close.

Comments  
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So you mean design somehow means appointing ?
red park 287 So you mean design somehow means appointing ?

Not any more. English words and affixes come from many other languages, especially Latin, Greek, Old French, Old Norse and German. The meanings change as the words are adopted and used and new words coined from old forms.

You did not follow the etymological link I posted, did you?

Design

late 14c., "to make, shape," ultimately from Latin designare "mark out, point out; devise; choose, designate, appoint," from de "out" (see de-) + signare "to mark," from signum "identifying mark, sign" (see sign (n.)).

I did follow the ethymoloy you posted. So you mean words'meaning coined from the same root changes as time passes or when they enter different countries. Am I right?
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red park 287when they enter different countries.

Speakers of a language often adopt new words when the trade or interact with people speaking a different language.

Languages evolve over time - the grammar changes and the vocabulary changes.
Native English speakers today have difficulty understanding the English of 500 years ago because of these language changes.

For example, the word "silly" meant blessed or happy in the Old German. Then it changed to pious.Then it changed to innocent (c. 1200), harmless (late 13th century), and foolish in 1570. Now it means childish or maybe idiotic. (What a silly idea!)

The word "daft" originally meant well-mannered and kind. And now it is used to mean stupid and crazy.

Consider the changes that the common adjective nice has gone through: https://www.etymonline.com/word/nice#etymonline_v_6918


When I was young, "gay" mean lighthearted, carefree and happy. Now it commonly means homosexual.