Which came into existence first in the development of English language, participle phrases or relative clauses?

Is it OK to assume that relative clauses came first, and participle phrases were born by removing the relative pronoun and the be verb from a relative clause (e.g. That dog which is running in the park is mine. → That dog running in the park is mine.)?

If so (or otherwise), is there any websites or books that explain this?

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