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What is the difference between "was" and "has been" ? Example: The distance was calculated to be 30 miles. OR The distance has been calculated to be 30 miles. What is the difference between these two statements ? It is to be used in a scientific paper (don't know if that has any significance though).
"was" seems more appropriate for that context, in my opinion.
You are retelling what happened. A measurement was made. A calculation was done. And so on.
In the course of doing the whole scientific project, a colleague might wish to know something about the progress being made up to that point in time. He might then ask whether the measurements have been done yet, or whether the distance has been calculated yet. But once the whole project is finished, all the participants look back on it and say: This was measured; that was calculated; and so on.
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if you use "has been ":it means caltulation finished recently.
but for the text to use "was" will betetr than to use " has been " because meauserment is clear : 30 mıles. and certain
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Example: " In a study of population distribution of western songbirds by Grossner 1997, the average distrubution of nesting pairs was calculated to be 25 pairs per square mile."
" In historical studies of western songbird populations, the average distribution of nesting pairs has been calculated to be 25 pairs per square mile."
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