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Is there any difference in meaning between the following interrogative sentences and are these both sentences correct?

1: What happened to her?

2: What has happened to her?

In my opinion, both sentences are correct. As far as tenses are concerned, difference lies in that sentence #1 is in simple Past Tense form and other one is in Present Perfect Tense.
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«In my opinion, both sentences are correct. As far as tenses are concerned, difference lies in that sentence #1 is in simple Past Tense form and other one is in Present Perfect Tense.»

Very correct.

But in most contexts, as I know, the first would be the choice, because we are interested in the problem itself, not in whether it's actual or not.

And, I suppose, in some contexts they are interchangeable (at least, in AmE).
The difference lies in the speaker's particular point of view and also in the context. The present perfect suggests some kind of very direct tie to the present situation. The difference could also be simply that (1) was spoken by an American, and (2) was spoken by a Brit. Without any context, it's difficult to say much more than that.
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When we say that 'something has happened', this is usually new information:

eg. The road is closed. There has been an accident.
Both sentences are correct.

Speaking from the point of view of the present, they are virtually interchangeable.
Speaking from the point of view of the past, with a particular moment in the past in mind, only the first is possible.

Present point of view.
You see this: Mary staggers in the door. Her clothes are dirty. There are cuts and scratches on her arms.

You say to a friend nearby:
-- What happened to her? or What has happened to her? (or What's happened to her?)

No matter which you say, it will sound natural. You friend will go on to explain what (has) happened (if he/she knows).

Past point of view.
A friend tells you about something he saw the previous day.
-- You won't believe it. Yesterday Mary suddenly staggered in the door. Her clothes were dirty, and there were cuts and scratches on her arms.

You respond:
-- What happened to her?
(You cannot respond with What has happened to her? or What's happened to her? at this point in the conversation! That would be changing to the present point of view.) But let's continue with the example to see what happens.

Having responded:
-- What happened to her?
You friend may say:
-- She was climbing up into an orange tree trying to reach an orange, and she fell.

If instead you (perversely!) interrupt the flow of the conversation by changing the viewpoint to the present (which I don't think you should do!), saying:
-- What has happened to her? (or What's happened to her?)
your friend may pause in some confusion to try to interpret your meaning and say:
-- They took her to the hospital, and it seems that she'll live!

Now you'll be left wondering why she had to be taken to the hospital. By changing the point of view, you missed the information you wanted to hear!

CJ
What a good explanation CalifJim.
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what about

what did happen to her?

?
What did happen to her? would be used for emphasis on the reality of a situation -- after something contradictory had been said, like this:

Alice says, "Mary fell out of a tree. That's why she has cuts on her arms."
Beth says, "Mary tripped on a step and fell. That's why she has cuts on her arms."
Charles says, "Mary fell from the roof into a rose bush. That's why she has cuts on her arms."

You are confused. You don't know for sure what did happen to her (i.e., what really happened to her).
When you finally see Mary (the only person who knows for sure what happened), you say, "Mary, I spoke with Alice, Beth, and Charles, and each has a different story, so I don't know what it true. Please tell me -- What did happen to you?"

CJ
DollWhat a good explanation CalifJim.
CJ's explanations are always adorable. He always tries to explain everything in detail and from every point of view. Wishing him good health and many years of happiness.
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