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However, as Bentham realized, most human beings are capable of different sorts of pleasure and pain from other animals. If we focus on the experience of pain, through language we are able to communicate and anticipate likely outcomes of actions in different ways from other animals. This means that a human being who is, for example, in a prison cell awaiting torture, would probably experience more intense psychological suffering than an animal in a similar posi-tion because the human would be able to anticipate the pain. This would make the overall quantity of pain higher in the case of a human being in this situation than it would an animal similarly placed.
This does not mean that animal suffering doesn’t count, only that the suffering may have a different intensity, duration, and effects on others– all consequences that need to be given weight in a calcu-lation of the pleasure or pain that results from a course of action.


Philosophy: The basics


I've two questions to ask.

1. Do "the suffering" refer to "animak suffering"? or it's just the suffering in general?

2. What does the word "others" refer to? I am so confused about this word.

Many thanks

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1. The statement, "...the suffering may have a different intensity, duration, and effects on others - all consequences that need to be given weight in a calculation of the pleasure or pain that results from a course of action.", apparently means: "When we are talking about suffering, depending on what type of being (human or animal) we're talking about that is suffering, the suffering may have a different intensity, duration, and effects on others (human or animal), all of which need to be taken into consideration when we calculate the pleasure or pain that results from a course of action that we take with respect to that being (human or animal). For example, if the being is a college-educated human, the pleasure or pain he is going through in his suffering, will be different, as we interpret it, that if the being were a chimpanzee."

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Why did the author use the article "a" before "intensity, duration, and effects"? Aren't they three factors?

The "a" is okay. This is like if you say: The disturbance had a different intensity, duration, and effects on the bystanders.