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The mind is packed with high-tech systems each contrived to overcome its own obstacles.

Grammatically, what is the 'each' above? A pronoun? If so, why without a comma in front as:
The mind is packed with high-tech systems, each contrived to overcome its own obstacles.

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href=" (class)">Determiner
I would have written it with the comma, Taka.
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Grammar GeekI would have written it with the comma, Taka.

Right, GG.
So you think grammatically, it's different from these 'each's:
・The apartments each have their own private entrances.
・They each have their own room.
and structually, it's the same kind as this one?
・They were fast asleep, all of them knowing nothing about what had happened.
That's how I read it.

Like:

There were three kittens in the box, and each kitten had a bow. = There were three kittens in the box, each with a bow.
Glad I read it the same way as you did, GG. Thanks.
But does it mean that in reality some people wouldn't use commas, like these?
・They were fast asleep all of them knowing nothing about what had happened.
・There were three kittens in the box each with a bow.
Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
Heaven only knows what some people will do! Emotion: wink

Me? I would put the commas.
LOL Great answer, GG!!!

By the way, Did you do it on purpose, swapping the positions of Heaven and only?
Grammar GeekHeaven only knows what some people will do!
For some reason, I would write it as "Only heaven knows ..." Please advise.
New2grammarFor some reason, I would write it as "Only heaven knows ..." Please advise.
Hey, lookie here: I googled it and look what I found: http://www.english-test.net/forum/ftopic4362.html

Read Mr. M's response.
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