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The invention of units og quantity and of a numerical system to count them was of capital importance for an exchange-geared society such as that of Akrotiri.

What does "Exchange-geared society" mean?

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An "exchange-geared society" is a society that is "geared to exchange", that is, a society that depends on "exchange" as an important or central activity. "exchange" appears to mean either trade or currency exchange (or possibly both).

Comments  

Geared (adj): designed or organized to achieve a particular purpose, or to be suitable for a particular group of people

So an “exchange-geared society” is a society that is suitable for exchanging things or that is designed, organized to achieve this purpose (exchange things)