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I encountered the topic of prepositional phrases :

Prepositional phrase = preposition + noun phrase
Noun phrase = (Adjectives) + noun + (Adjective prepositional phrases )

So, prepositional phrases are Preposition + (adjectives) + noun + ( Adjective prepositional phrases) ?? Seems weird. And also, would this means that adverb prepositional phrases have adjective prepositional phrases in them? D:
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Not wierd, but complicated if you are not used to it. Yes, adverbial prepositional phrases can contain adjectival ones. Like this:

He dived into a large lake of the deepest blue.
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hmm... how about " prepositional phrases are Preposition + (adjectives) + noun + ( Adjective prepositional phrases) ?? "

Could you please give an example that uses all the elements above with labels ?
That's what I just did. If you don't like mine, then please try to do one yourself and then I'll check it.
ah.... i rereaded your sentence again. sorry Emotion: surprise i'm still new in this ;D

The mysterious girl [ strangles ] Josh [ as he* tries to make sense ] of the situation.
adverb prepositional phrase

[ By the seashore ] , [ near the white corals ] , he [ found ] his true love.
adverbial p.p adverbial p.p

We should eat [ the donuts before they expires ]
adjective prepositional phrase

PS: Do prepositional phrases have to start with a preposition or is it interchangeablef?
* Could pronoun be the object of prepositional phrase?

thanks Emotion: smile
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The mysterious girl [ strangles ] Josh [as he* tries to make sense ] of the situation.-- This is not a prepositional phrase; it is a subordinate clause.

[ By the seashore ] , [ near the white corals ] , he [ found ] his true love.-- These are two independent adverbials

We should eat [ the donuts before they expires ]-- No. You have bracketed the noun object and an adverbial prepositional phrase.

PS: Do prepositional phrases have to start with a preposition or is it interchangeablef?-- Yes: prepositional phrases always begin with a preposition.

* Could pronoun be the object of prepositional phrase?--It is possible.